PSYCHOLOGY MT3 STUDY GUIDE

PSYCHOLOGY MT3 STUDY GUIDE - PSYCHOLOGY 201 MIDTERM 3 STUDY...

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PSYCHOLOGY 201 MIDTERM 3 STUDY GUIDE
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Module 9 Notes I. Learning: a permanent change in behavior or knowledge that results from previous experience. Behavior is any observable response. A. Three Kinds of Learning a. Classical Conditioning: learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to produce a response that was originally produced by a different stimulus. b. Law of Effect: if some random actions are followed by a pleasurable consequence or reward, such actions are strengthened and will likely occur in the future. c. Operant Conditioning: learning in which the consequences that follow some behavior increase or decrease the likelihood of that behavior’s occurrence in the future. d. Cognitive Learning: learning that involves mental processes, such as attention and memory, learned through observation or imitation. Can’t involve any external rewards. B. Procedure: Classical Conditioning a. Selecting Stimulus and Response a.i. Neutral Stimulus: stimulus that causes a sensory response, such a s being seen heard or smelled but does not produce the reflex being tested. a.ii. Unconditioned Stimulus: a stimulus that triggers a physiological reflex like salivating or blinking. a.iii. Unconditioned Response: unlearned, innate, involuntary physiological reflex that is caused by the UCS. a.iv. Conditioned Stimulus: is a formerly neutral stimulus that has acquired the ability to elicit a response that was previously elicited by the unconditioned stimulus. a.v. Conditioned Response: caused by the CS, similar but not equal in size or amount to the UCR. C. Other Conditioning Concepts a. Generalization: the tendency for a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus to elicit a response that is similar to the conditioned response. b. Extinction: a procedure in which a conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented w/o the UCS and results in the CS no longer causing the CR. c. Discrimination: occurs when an organism learns to make a particular response to some stimuli but not to others. d. Spontaneous Recovery: the tendency for the conditioned response to reappear after being extinguished even though there has been no further conditioning trials. D. Adaptive Value and Uses a. Adaptive Value: refers to the usefulness of certain abilities or traits that have evolved in animals and humans and tend to increase their chances of survival.
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b. Taste-aversion Learning: refers to associating a particular sensory cue (smell, taste, sound, or sight) with getting sick and thereafter avoiding that particular sensory cue in the future. c. Preparedness: the phenomenon that animals and humans are biologically prepared to associate some combinations of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli more easily than others. d.
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PSYCHOLOGY MT3 STUDY GUIDE - PSYCHOLOGY 201 MIDTERM 3 STUDY...

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