Module 10 Operant and Cognitive Approaches

Module 10 Operant and Cognitive Approaches - Module 10...

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Module 10 Operant and Cognitive Approaches Operant Conditioning: learning in which an animal or human performs some behavior, and the consequence increases or decreases the change that the organism will repeat the same behavior again. A. Operant Conditioning a. Thorndike: built puzzle boxes for cats and measured how fast they could escape with a number of trials. a.i. Law of Effect: behaviors followed by positive consequences are strengthened, behaviors followed by negative consequences are weakened. b. Skinner: built on Thorndike’s Law of effect b.i. Operant Response: response that can be modified by its consequences and is a meaningful unit of ongoing behavior that can be easily measured. b.ii. Shaping: a procedure in which an experimenter successively reinforces behaviors that lead up to or approximate the desired behavior. b.iii. Superstitious Behavior: behavior that increases in frequency because its occurrence is accidentally paired with the delivery of a reinforcer. B. Reinforcers a. Reinforcement: a consequence that occurs after a behavior and increases the chance that the behavior will occur again. b. Punishment: a consequence that occurs after a behavior and decrease the chance that the behavior will occur again. c. Pica: a behavioral disorder, often seen in people with retardation, involves eating inedible or unhealthy objects. d.
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Module 10 Operant and Cognitive Approaches - Module 10...

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