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MITRES_21F_003S11_unit03 - Learning Chinese A Foundation...

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Learning Chinese: A Foundation Course in Mandarin Julian K. Wheatley, 4/07 Unit 3 Z ǐ yu ē : Xué ér shí xí zh ī , bú yì yuè h ū ? Master said: study and timely review it, not also pleasing Q. The Master said, ‘To learn and in due time rehearse it: is this not also pleasurable?’ Opening lines of the Analects of Confucius. (Brooks and Brooks translation) Classical Chinese Contents 3.1 Pronunciation 3.2 Amount 3.3 Nationality 3.4 The Cardinal Directions: NSEW Exercise 1 3.5 Yes and no Exercise 2 3.6 Thanks and sorry Exercise 3 3.7 Things to drink Exercise 4 3.8 Why, because, so Exercise 5 3.9 Money Exercises 6,7 3.10 Other numbered sets Exercise 8 3.11 Courses and classes Exercise 9 3.12 Dialogue: courses and classes Exercise 10 3.13 Sounds and pinyin Exercise 11 3.14 Summary Exercise 12 3.15 Rhymes and rhythms Appendix: Cities, countries and nationalities 3.1 Pronunciation : initials of rows 3 and 4 The sounds symbolized as z and c in pinyin (in row-3 of the initial chart) can be problematical for speakers of English, since they do not appear in initial position in English words. The word ‘tsunami’ for example, though represented in English dictionaries with the foreign ‘ts’ sound, is often anglicized as ‘tunami’ or ‘sunami’ by English speakers. [ Tsunami is a Japanese word, written with characters whose Chinese meanings are ‘shallows’ and ‘wave’; the Chinese word is h ǎ ixiào ‘sea roar’.] The row-4 initials, the retroflex consonants pronounced with the tongue tip raised [!], also present difficulties, not just for English speakers, but for the many Chinese in southern regions (including Taiwan) who, in colloquial speech, pronounce zh , ch and sh as z , c , and s , respectively. [Standard] Mandarin is unique to the region in having both the dental (row-3) and retroflex (row 4) series. Speakers of regional Chinese languages such as Cantonese and Hakka, or those who speak Southeast Asian languages such as Thai and Vietnamese usually have one or other of the series, but not both. The following sets, then, focus on lines 3 and 4 of the initial consonant sounds. Read them across, assigning a single tone; ! reminds you to raise the tip of your tongue. 89
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Learning Chinese: A Foundation Course in Mandarin Julian K. Wheatley, 4/07 1. cu > tu > ch!u > su > zu > du > zh!u 2. ta > ca > sa > ch!a > sh!a 3. zh!e > de > ze > ce > te > ch!e > se 4. duo > zuo > zh!uo > tuo > cuo > ch!uo > suo > sh!uo 5. tou > cou > ch!ou > zh!ou > zou > dou > sou > sh!ou 3.2 Amount 3.2.1 Larger numbers As you know, numbers in Chinese are well behaved: 11 is 10-1, 12 is 10-2; 20 is 2-10 and 30, 3-10; 41 is 4-10-1, etc. Higher numbers, also quite regular, are based on b ǎ i ‘100’, qi ā n ‘1000’ and wàn ’10,000’. s
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MITRES_21F_003S11_unit03 - Learning Chinese A Foundation...

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