All prokaryotes have cytoplasm surrounded by a cell membrane

All prokaryotes have cytoplasm surrounded by a cell...

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All prokaryotes have cytoplasm surrounded by a cell membrane, also known as the plasma  membrane. The cell membrane conforms to the fluid mosaic model, which means that its proteins  float within a double layer of phospholipids. Respiratory enzymes are located at the cell membrane  of prokaryotes, and the membrane assists DNA replication and has attachment points for bacterial  flagella.  The cytoplasm. The cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells contains ribosomes and various other granules  used by the organism. The DNA is contained in the nuclear region (the nucleoid) and has no histone  protein to support it. Prokaryotic cells have in their cytoplasm a single, looped chromosome, as well  as numerous small loops of DNA called plasmids. Genetic information in the plasmids is apparently  not essential for the continued survival of the organism.  Prokaryotic ribosomes contain protein and ribonucleic acid (RNA) and are the locations where 
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Unformatted text preview: protein is synthesized. Prokaryotic ribosomes have a sedimentation rate of 70S, and are therefore known as 70S ribosomes. (Eukaryotic cells have 80S ribosomes.) Certain antibiotics bind to these ribosomes and inhibit protein synthesis. Some prokaryotic cells that engage in photosynthesis have internal membranes called thylakoids where their chlorophyll pigments are located. These membranes are also the sites of enzymes for photosynthesis. Certain bacteria have granules of phosphorus, starch, or glycogen. Granules called metachromatic granules stain with methylene blue and are used in diagnostic circumstances. Some bacterial species also have magnetosomes, which contain magnetic substances to help orient the organisms to hospitable environments....
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This note was uploaded on 11/11/2011 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Pesthy during the Fall '07 term at Texas State.

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