Chemical Principles

Chemical Principles - Atoms consist of positively charged...

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Chemical Principles In the 1700s, scientists discovered the chemical and physical basis of living things, and  soon they realized that the chemical organization of all living things is remarkably  similar. Microorganisms, as forms of living things, conform to this principle and have a  chemical basis that underlies their metabolism. Elements and atoms.  All living things on earth, including microorganisms, are  composed of fundamental building blocks of matter called  elements.  Over 100 elements  are known to exist, including certain ones synthesized by scientists. An element is a  substance that cannot be decomposed by chemical means. Such things as oxygen,  iron, calcium, sodium, hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen are elements.  Each element is composed of one particular kind of atom. An  atom  is the smallest part  of an element that can enter into combinations with atoms of other elements. 
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Unformatted text preview: Atoms consist of positively charged particles called protons surrounded by negatively charged particles called electrons. A third particle called the neutron has no electrical charge; it has the same weight as a proton. Protons and neutrons adhere tightly to form the dense, positively charged nucleus of the atom. Electrons spin around the nucleus in orbits, or shells. The arrangement of electrons in an atom plays an essential role in the chemistry of the atom. Atoms are most stable when their outer shell of electrons has a full quota, which may be two electrons or eight electrons. Atoms tend to gain or lose electrons until their outer shells have this stable arrangement. The gaining or losing of electrons contributes to the chemical reactions in which an atom participates....
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