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Unformatted text preview: DNA Structure During the 1950s, a tremendous explosion in biological research occurred, and the methods of gene expression were elucidated. The knowledge generated during this period helped explain how genes function in microorganisms and gave rise to the science of molecular genetics. This science is concerned with the activity of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and how that activity brings about the production of proteins in microbial and other cells. As proposed originally in 1953 by Watson and Crick, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) consists of two long chains of nucleotides. The two nucleotide chains twist around one another to form a double helix , which resembles a spiral staircase. The two chains of nucleotides are held to one another by weak hydrogen bonds between bases of the chains. A nucleotide in the DNA chain consists of three parts: a nitrogenous base, a phosphate group, and...
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