Female Reproductive SystemThe organs of female reproduction include the ovaries, two oval organs lying within the pelvic cavity, and adjacent to them, two Fallopian tubes. Also known as oviducts, the Fallopian tubes are the passageways that egg cells enter after release from the ovaries. The Fallopian tubes lead to the uterus (womb), a muscular organ in the pelvic cavity. The inner lining, called the endometrium, thickens with blood and tissue in anticipation of a fertilized egg cell. If fertilization fails to occur, the endometrium degenerates and is shed in the process of menstruation. The opening at the lower end of the uterus is a constricted area called the cervix. The tube leading from the cervix to the exterior is a muscular organ called the vagina. During periods of sexual arousal, the vagina receives the penis and the semen. The sperm cells in the semen pass through
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