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Gene therapy has also been performed with patients with melanoma

Gene therapy has also been performed with patients with melanoma

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Gene therapy has also been performed with patients with melanoma (a virulent skin cancer). In this  case, lymphocytes that normally attack tumors are isolated in the patients and treated with genes for  an anticancer protein called tumor necrosis factor. The genealtered lymphocytes are then reinfused  to the patients, where they produce the new protein which helps destroy cancer cells. Approximately  2000 single-gene defects are believed to exist, and patients with these defects may be candidates  for gene therapy.  DNA fingerprinting. The use of DNA probes and the development of retrieval techniques have made  it possible to match DNA molecules to one another for identification purposes. This process has  been used in a forensic procedure called DNA fingerprinting.  The use of DNA fingerprinting depends upon the presence of repeating base sequences that exist in 
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Unformatted text preview: the human genome. The repeating sequences are called restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). As the pattern of RFLPs is unique for every individual, it can be used as a molecular fingerprint. To perform DNA fingerprinting, DNA is obtained from an individual's blood cells, hair fibers, skin fragments, or other tissue. The DNA is extracted from the cells and digested with enzymes. The resulting fragments are separated by a process called electrophoresis. These separated DNA fragments are tested for characteristic RFLPs using DNA probes. A statistical evaluation enables the forensic pathologist to compare a suspect's DNA with the DNA recovered at a crime scene and to assert with a degree of certainty (usually 99 percent) that the suspect was at the crime scene....
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