Inflammation. Inflammation is a nonspecific response to any trauma occurring to tissues. It is accompanied by signs and symptoms that include heat, swelling, redness, and pain. Inflammation mobilizes components of the immune system, sets into motion repair mechanisms, and encourages phagocytes to come to the area and destroy any microorganisms present. Inflammation can be controlled by nervous stimulation and chemical substances called cytokines. These chemical products of tissue cells and blood cells are responsible for many of the actions of inflammation. The loss of fluid leads to a local swelling called edema. In some types of inflammation, phagocytes accumulate in the whitish mass of cells, bacteria, and debris called pus. Fever. Fever is considered a nonspecific defense mechanism because it develops in response to numerous traumas. Fever is initiated by circulating substances called
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