Large intestine

Large intestine - Liver The liver has an important function...

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Large intestine The small intestine joins the large intestine in the lower right abdomen of the body. The two organs  meet at a blind sac called the  cecum  and a small fingerlike process called the  appendix.  Evolutionary biologists believe the cecum and appendix are vestiges of larger organs that may have  been functional in human ancestors.  The large intestine is also known as the  colon . It is divided into ascending, transverse, and  descending portions, each about one foot in length. The colon's chief functions are to absorb water  and to store, process, and eliminate the residue following digestion and absorption. The intestinal  matter remaining after water has been reclaimed is known as  feces . Feces consist of nondigested  food (such as cellulose), billions of mostly harmless bacteria, bile pigments, and other materials. The  feces are stored in the rectum and passed out through the anus to complete the digestion process. 
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Unformatted text preview: Liver The liver has an important function in processing the products of human digestion. For example, cells of the liver remove excess glucose from the bloodstream and convert the glucose to a polymer called glycogen for storage. The liver also functions in amino acid metabolism. In a process called deamination , it converts some amino acids to compounds that can be used in energy metabolism. In doing so, the liver removes the amino groups from amino acids and uses the amino groups to produce urea. Urea is removed from the body in the urine. Fats are processed into two-carbon units that can enter the Krebs cycle for energy metabolism. The liver also stores vitamins and minerals, forms many blood proteins, synthesizes cholesterol, and produces bile for fat digestion....
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This note was uploaded on 11/11/2011 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Pesthy during the Fall '07 term at Texas State.

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