Leaves - Leaves .Thecuticlesurrounds , .The palisadece

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Leaves The leaves are the principal organs of photosynthesis in the vascular plants. The cuticle surrounds  the epidermis of the leaf to reduce water loss, while gases pass through pores called stomata.  Beneath the upper epidermis of the leaf is a layer of elongated palisade cells. The  palisade cells  contain numerous chloroplasts where photosynthesis takes place. Below the palisade cells is the  spongy mesophyll , an arrangement of loosely packed cells that also contain chloroplasts for  photosynthesis. The air spaces around the cells permit efficient gas exchange to take place during  photosynthesis.  Bundles of vascular tissues extend through the leaf and form its veins. The vascular tissue supplies  water and nutrients to the photosynthetic cells, and the products of photosynthesis are conducted  away from the cells through the phloem. Vascular tissue also runs through the 
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