PancreasThe pancreas is located just behind the stomach. Its endocrine portion consists of cell clusters called the islets of Langerhans.The pancreas produces two hormones: insulin and glucagon. Insulin is a protein that promotes the passage of glucose molecules into the body cells and regulates glucose metabolism. In the absence of insulin, glucose is removed from the blood and excreted in the kidney, a condition called diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by glucose in the urine, heavy urination, excessive thirst, and a generally sluggish body metabolism. The second pancreatic hormone, glucagon, stimulates the breakdown of glycogen to glucose in the liver. It also releases fat from the adipose tissue so the fat can be used for the production of carbohydrates. Other endocrine glandsAmong the other endocrine glands are the ovaries and testes. The
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