Phagocytosis is enhanced by products of the immune system called antibodies

Phagocytosis is enhanced by products of the immune system called antibodies

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Phagocytosis is enhanced by products of the immune system called antibodies. These  protein molecules bind to microorganisms and encourage engulfing by phagocytosis.  The complement system. The complement system is a series of proteins that circulate in  the blood and encourage phagocytosis or otherwise “complete” the defensive process.  Many immune reactions stimulate the complement system.  The complement system operates in a cascade of reactions. In the pathway, certain  complement components react with one another and produce new substances that  induce other components to react. The results of the myriad reactions are substances  that induce other complement components into action. The overall result is a number of  substances toxic to microorganisms. The substances encourage phagocytosis or bring 
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Unformatted text preview: about destruction of microbial membranes. Two general pathways for complement activity exist. The classical pathway operates with the highly specific immune system and is initiated when certain antibodies unite with antigens and stimulate the complement system into action. The alternative pathway is nonspecific and is initiated by tumors, cell wall components of bacteria, and various microorganisms. It is sometimes called the properdin pathway because properdin is one of the proteins operating in it. The alternative pathway invokes a slower and less specific method for ridding the body of parasites, particularly Gram-negative bacteria and viruses....
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