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Unformatted text preview: Protein Synthesis During the 1950s and 1960s it became apparent that DNA is essential in the synthesis of proteins. Proteins are used as structural materials in the cells and function as enzymes. In addition, many specialized proteins function in cellular activities. For example, in bacteria, flagella and pili are composed of protein. The genetic code. The key element of a protein molecule is how the amino acids are linked. The sequences of amino acids, determined by genetic codes in DNA, distinguish one protein from another. The genetic code consists of the sequence of nitrogenous bases in the DNA. How the nitrogenous base code is translated to an amino acid sequence in a protein is the basis for protein synthesis. In order for protein synthesis to occur, several essential materials must be present. One is a supply of the 20 amino acids which make up most proteins. Another essential element is a series of of the 20 amino acids which make up most proteins....
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