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Protein Synthesis - amino acid sequence in a protein is the...

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Protein Synthesis During the 1950s and 1960s, it became apparent that DNA is essential in the synthesis of proteins.  Proteins  are used in enzymes and as structural materials in cells. Many specialized proteins  function in cellular activities. For example, in humans, the hormone insulin and the muscle cell  filaments are composed of protein. The hair, skin, and nails of humans are composed of proteins, as  are all the hundreds of thousands of enzymes in the body.  The key to a protein molecule is how the amino acids are linked. The sequence of amino acids in a  protein is a type of code that specifies the protein and distinguishes one protein from another. A  genetic code in the DNA determines this amino acid code. The genetic code consists of the  sequence of nitrogenous bases in the DNA. How the nitrogenous base code is translated to an 
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Unformatted text preview: amino acid sequence in a protein is the basis for protein synthesis. For protein synthesis to occur, several essential materials must be present, such as a supply of the 20 amino acids, which comprise most proteins. Another essential element is a series of enzymes that will function in the process. DNA and another form of nucleic acid called ribonucleic acid (RNA) are essential. RNA is the nucleic acid that carries instructions from the nuclear DNA into the cytoplasm, where protein is synthesized. RNA is similar to DNA, with two exceptions. First, the carbohydrate in RNA is ribose rather than deoxyribose, and second, RNA nucleotides contain the pyrimidine uracil rather than thymine....
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