The genes used in DNA technology are commonly obtained from host cells or organisms called gene libr

The genes used in DNA technology are commonly obtained from host cells or organisms called gene libr

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The genes used in DNA technology are commonly obtained from host cells or  organisms called gene libraries. A gene library is a collection of cells identified as  harboring a specific gene. For example,  E. coli  cells can be stored with the genes for  human insulin in their chromosomes.  Pharmaceutical products. Gene defects in humans can lead to deficiencies in proteins  such as insulin, human growth hormone, and Factor VIII. These protein deficiencies  may lead to problems such as diabetes, dwarfism, and impaired blood clotting,  respectively. Missing proteins can now be replaced by proteins manufactured through  biotechnology. For insulin production, two protein chains are encoded by separate  genes in plasmids inserted into bacteria. The protein chains are then chemically joined  to form the final insulin product. Human growth hormone is also produced within 
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Unformatted text preview: bacteria, but special techniques are used because the bacteria do not usually produce human proteins. Therapeutic proteins produced by biotechnology include a clot-dissolving protein called tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) and interferon. This antiviral protein is produced within E. coli cells. Interferon is currently used against certain types of cancers and for certain skin conditions. Vaccines represent another application of recombinant DNA technology. For instance, the hepatitis B vaccine now in use is composed of viral protein manufactured by yeast cells, which have been recombined with viral genes. The vaccine is safe because it contains no viral particles. Experimental vaccines against AIDS are being produced in the same way....
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