l11 - 20.110J / 2.772J / 5.601J Thermodynamics of...

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20.110/5.60 Fall 2005 Lecture #11 page 1 Equilibrium in Solution The chemical potential for molecules in solution is given by a formula that is very similar to that for ideal gases: () ( ) ( ) [ ] µµ µ =+=+ ,, , l n , l n oo AA A Tpc Tp RT c The precise definition of the standard chemical potential ( ) , o is now more complicated; it is defined at a given pH, salt concentration, etc…, all solution properties that need to be defined in advance. We will not go through those and take it as a given that the standard state is appropriately defined. Given a standard chemical potential ( ) , , then the analysis that we did for the ideal gas follows straight through and we find for a solution process ν A A(g, T , p ) + B B(g, , ) = C C(g, , ) + D D(g, , ) that following the ideal gas analysis in our previous lecture () () () () [ ] [ ] [][] νν ε ενµ νµ ⎛⎞ ⎡⎤ ∆= + + + ⎜⎟ ⎣⎦ ⎝⎠ l n CD B BB CC D GT R AB and the equilibrium constant K comes out through ln rxn GRT K , −∆ = o Ke Where [ ] [ ] == eq C KQ at equilibrium as before, and where the concentrations Q are equilibrium concentrations. 20.110J / 2.772J / 5.601J Thermodynamics of Biomolecular Systems Instructors: Linda G. Griffith, Kimberly Hamad-Schifferli, Moungi G. Bawendi, Robert W. Field
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20.110/5.60 Fall 2005 Lecture #11 page 2 Temperature dependence of K (or K p ) () ⎛⎞ ∆∆ =− = = ⎜⎟ ⎝⎠ oo o 2 ln 1 ln Gd K d G KT RT dT o But at fixed pressure and/or solutions properties ( = 1 bar, pH constant, etc. .) ∆∂ = 1 bar,pH constant, etc. ..
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This note was uploaded on 11/11/2011 for the course BIO 20.010j taught by Professor Lindagriffith during the Spring '06 term at MIT.

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l11 - 20.110J / 2.772J / 5.601J Thermodynamics of...

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