BE.104 Spring “Epidemiology: Test Development and Relative Risk” J. L. Sherley Agent X ∆Health ? Cause First, Some definitionsMorbidity = sickness, disease, [toxicity] – Hard to quantify Mortality = death – Easy to quantify Annual Death Rate = Total deaths during specified 12 months Number of persons in pop. @ middle of the period specified Age-specific ADR = ADR for a specified age Age-adjusted ADR = adjusted ADR (indexing for age differences, e.g., death rates in nursing home versus general population) Incidence = # of NEWcases in a population during a specified period of time= “Rate of appearance in group at risk” Number of persons exposed to risk of developing disease in same interval (by convention per 100,000 persons) Prevalence = # of cases in population at a specified time= “Frequency” # of persons present in pop. at same time (By convention per 100,000 persons) [Prevalence αIncidence X duration of disease based on death or cure] “Chronic disease will be more prevalent” 1
has intentionally blurred sections.
Sign up to view the full version.
Testsdisease To determine these epi-parameters, we need to develop tests to detect and quantifyexposure death Develop tests- Disease measurements (death is not all that easy to quantify when you want death from a specificcause) - Exposure measurements to X - Measure X in the environment Properties of a good testSimple Well tolerated < by allinvolved; subject & tester > High throughout Proven versus newly developed Precise Accurate: Sensitive, Specific, Predictive2