lec14_jls

lec14_jls - BE.104 Spring Evaluating Environmental Causes...

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BE.104 Spring Evaluating Environmental Causes of Mesothelioma J. L. Sherley Outline: 1) Toxicological mechanisms and causation evaluations 2) An environetics case: Asbestos and Mesothelioma Toxicological Mechanisms -processes by which toxin cause toxicity -chemical, molecular, macromolecular, cellular, histological, organ-based, organismal Knowledge of toxicological mechanisms informs environetic causation analyses by: 1) Limiting the number of possible explanations 2) Providing possible signatures of cause Consider the question of whether the proverbial “lady tasting tea” could actual tell the order of addition. How would you think about and approach this problem if you knew that, when a large volume of hot tea was poured into a small volume of cool cream, a chemical reaction occurred that did not occur when a small amount of cool cream was poured into a large volume of hot tea? 1
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Asbestos What is it? - Naturally occurring Silicate mineral crystal in fiber form Serpentine <curly>- chrysotile- >90% of world’s production amphiboles crocidolite* anthrophyllite } rod-like forms associate w/ MM amosite 5-10% of the world’s actinolite production tremolite Most commercial asbestos is a mixture *crocidolite is a common contaminant of chrysotile Mine and milled for insulating & fireproofing properties Uses - electrical insulation high pressure sprays to coat outer surfaces of major construction brake linings floor tiles transmissions 2
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1940’s World War II shipbuilding Late 1960’s use soared- rocket engines for US space program, paper & cement products, pipe wrapping, ceiling tiles, gaskets, hair dryers, textiles, and potholders 1913 to 1973 world consumption increased from 30,000 tons to 4 million tons per year! Epidemiology Three major disease effects associated with exposure: 1) Asbestosis- fibrosis of lung alveoli 2) Bronchogenic lung cancers 3) Malignant Mesothelioma (MM)- cancer of pleura-lung lining cancer of the peritoneum- lining of the abdominal cavity No effective treatment, no cure Average survival @ Dx is < 1 yr. 3
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This note was uploaded on 11/11/2011 for the course BIO 20.010j taught by Professor Lindagriffith during the Spring '06 term at MIT.

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lec14_jls - BE.104 Spring Evaluating Environmental Causes...

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