lecture13

lecture13 - 20.106J Systems Microbiology Lecture 13 Prof...

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20.106J – Systems Microbiology Lecture 13 Prof. DeLong ± Genome Evolution and Ecology o LGT and Genome Evolution o Genomics of Endosymbionts ± Live inside of other organisms, thus they’re protected from the outside environment o Environmental Genomics (Meta-genomics) ± Looking at genomes in the environment ± Mechanisms and consequences of lateral gene transfer o Three methods: ± DNA transfer by phage ± DNA transfer by conjugation (uses pili) ± DNA transfer by transformation o These methods of transfer can all speed up the rate of mutation enormously o Thus huge genetic variation exists among these organisms ± Remember, only around 40% of E. coli DNA is shared among all three major E. coli strains o Map of genetic differences between Uropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli ± Transfer RNAs are a place of frequent insertions o Molecular phylogenetics ± Making Phylogenetic trees – simply based on the number of sequence differences ± Requires certain conditions: You must be comparing homologous sites and homologous sequences Watch for paralogous genes – the result of a gene duplication within a cell, so that one form can develop a different function, inside the same organism
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lecture13 - 20.106J Systems Microbiology Lecture 13 Prof...

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