lecture17

lecture17 - 20.106J Systems Microbiology Lecture 17 Prof....

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20.106J – Systems Microbiology Lecture 17 Prof. Schauer ¾ For today: Ch. 21 and Backhed et al., Science 307: 5717, 2005. (5-page review) ¾ Problem Set #5 due 11/22 ± Microbe-host interactions ± Antimicrobial drug resistance (from last week) o There are specific mechanisms that microbes can acquire to resist these chemicals o In the early 1950s people began to realize that all the old antibiotics were no longer working – multi-drug antibiotic resistance emerged and spread across the globe very quickly o There’s a lot of debate today about why we have this problem ± You would think that if you used enough of the drug for long enough, it would wipe out all the microbes before they had the chance to develop resistance ± Resistance often happens due to improper use of the drug, such as when patients stop taking antibiotics too soon ± A significant fraction of the antibiotics that are produced every year go into animal feeds, because it makes cattle, sheep, and pigs grow faster ± In Denmark, they prohibited all use of antibiotics in animal feeds, and they saw a decrease in resistant microbes in hospitals ± Lobbies in the US would fight tooth and nail against a discontinuation of antibiotics in animal feed ± o R factors (resistance factors) ± If you look at old samples that were frozen before these antibiotics were produced by people, you can still find these R-factors They existed before, as resistance against factors produced by other bacteria But they were much more rare than they are today ± There are a number of microbial strains that are on the verge of being resistant to every drug we have available ± TB is an unusual bug It has to be treated with many different drugs at the same time There are often problems with patient compliance Patients infected with multi-drug-resistant strains of TB have the same risk of dying as patients with a regular strain do if they are untreated – 50% will die
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± Some R-factors reside on the plasmid, so that they can be easily transferred from one microbe to another
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lecture17 - 20.106J Systems Microbiology Lecture 17 Prof....

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