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Unformatted text preview: Project Log Team Name: oncoCURES Class: Intro to Biological Engineering Design (20.020) Project: Dynamic Metastasis Imaging Anonymous students MK and NM, with mentor anonymous student RA ‐Start of Entries‐ Wednesday, February 25 • discussed the prompts for the team contract • put together a contacts list • came up with 5 ideas for our presentation • signaling, environment, genetic, chemotherapy, and virus Wednesday, March 4 • figured out 3 ideas to go forward with • eliminated chemotherapy and redefined environment • chose signaling and genetics, virus and bacteria, and competition and decoys • divided up the ideas amongst the team members • MK: Competition and Decoys • NM: Signaling and Genetics • Anonymous student AJ: Virus and Bacteria • planned meeting for the weekend Sunday, March 8 • worked on presentation slides • brainstormed the pros and cons of each • discussion on safety and security of the proposed technology • could not decide which one we are leaning towards Tuesday, March 10 • modified draft of the PowerPoint presentation • decided to redo third idea • problem: decoys have been done better, competition is difficult • problem: could trigger more evolution of cancer, make it worse • solution: markers and targeting, focus on metastasis Wednesday, March 11 • gave 3 Ideas Presentation • got reviews and questions • student feedback, voting by category Category: Signaling and Genetics Viruses and Suppression Markers and Targeting Most Important 10 2 7 Greatest Impact 7 7 6 Most Competitive 7 4 5 Greatest Certainty 5 0 11 • decided to go with Markers and Targeting • thought there was the greatest potential for research, could take in parts Thursday, March 12 • reviewed the ideas and the mentor feedback • signaling and genetics ‐ Glivec, important example to study in great depth, mimic it, small molecule inhibitors not proteins need to pick specific pathway to target what would it do • viruses and bacteria ‐ tried for a long time, genetic therapy, no viral therapy approved by FDA study, existing possibilities some dangers • markers and targeting ‐ interesting findings may not be able to achieve ambition • reassured decision to go with the markers/targeting idea Tuesday, March 17 • passed on our project idea selection to Natalie • tried to plan on system schematic • decided to start with detectiont through marker first • would consider targetting/killing later if time • drew a diagram of marker cells and killing cells Wednesday, March 18 • AJ has left the class, sadly • will be working closely with our advisor, RA • learned about system levels, mapped to our own project • system ‐ marker on metastatic cells • device ‐ light producer, signal receptors • parts ‐ lots of regulatory genes from registry of parts, promoters, terminators, we'd need eukaryotic ones • DNA ‐ from registry, don't need exact for all of devices • drew a timing diagram on the board for our project Thursday, March 19 • problem: working with false triggering, specificity • solution: need two enzymes that on most basic level function as signals • solution: use "AND" gate for receptors only present in breast cancer • problem: is this safe/secure? • solution: build so that it is harmless • solution: most likely will die on its own, due to human response • solution: don't let others know how to program these, science behind it Tuesday, March 31 • debate on cost/buildable and development • problem: is this possible? • solution: use current research ideas, experimentation • read up on luciferase • different types, from underwater animals to fireflies • reaction involves oxygen and luciferin • problem: hypoxia in tumor cells? • solution: metastasis means angiogenesis, blood vessels bring oxygen • researching enzymes involved in breast cancer metastasis • debating pros and cons of each one • some occur naturally and need to be judged cancerous with increased activity Wednesday, April 1 • have decided on COX‐2 and MMP‐1 enzymes • used the products of each reaction •
• • COX‐2 makes prostanoids MMP‐1 makes collagen debris need to evolve receptors pull out DNA from experiment, place in chassis picked out some general regulatory parts • decided that we should use viral promoters • strongest and necessary for marker to appear bright • used normal yeast terminators • will need to be humanized, account for evolutionary differences redrew diagram with our selected enzymes, products, and proposed sensors Thursday, April 2 • found exact sequence for MMP degradation • polypeptide strand • strand can bind to antibodies • developed through clonal explansion after introduced in animal • in T‐cells binding can lead to MAC or attack complex • problem: how to prevent full‐attack on cancer cell, without detection • solution: disable some fo the C1+ components through inhibitors, chemicals • solution: use the components for our own reaction, competition • prostanoids trigger receptor involved in G‐protein cascade • binds and phosphorylates • black box in middle • regulates production of light • could make luciferin • could trigger luciferase through ATP Sunday, April 5 • wrote up Tech Spec Review • debated the benefits/impact of our current project • used mainly for research • understanding of metastasis and how it works • current tests are very vague, not accurate • no real knowledge on how and why it spreads Tuesday, April 7 • ran through slides and made some corrections • finalized testing/debugging methods • problem: nothing happens • solution: in vitro, make sure receptors localize with freeze‐fracture • solution: add collagen debris and prostanoids to see if reacting • solution: use GFP for products, receptors, luciferase Wednesday, April 8 • gave Tech Spec Review presentation • got feedback from guest panelists • Kuldell gave written feedback • advice: how will the black box work and integrate two signals • advice: better research on low‐light imaging, CCD cameras • advice: consider other types of chassis, how will these move in vivo • Barry/Austin also spoke, asked questions, criticism • advice: look at magnetic sensing or skip straight to toxin release • advice: consider the value of understanding metastasis • advice: how will the sensors work in combination, look for better combo • overall decision to reconsider enzyme activation • look at luciferase alternatives • decision: still going forward with project Thursday, April 9 • considered what chassis to use • researched cells of the immune system • hard to understand differences in all T‐cell types, B‐cells • reading through papers on immune system Tuesday, April 14 • talked about thresholds, how to add them to our system • problem: how to biologically replicate thresholds for our system • solution: decided on light gradients to detect, most concentrated light • solution: also decided that we could have molecular competition • needs a lot of collagen/prostanoids to activate it • discussion of how to deal with false positives Wednesday, April 15 • looked at the registry of parts • talked about which promoters/terminators we should use • do we want to keep our current ones? • which part will we contribute • picking between sensors, light producer Thursday, April 16 • discussion on what will tax the cell, too much production • problem: will we have luciferin in the cell? • solution: need to store some in the cell • solution: make up for not eating it, acquiring from environment • solution: only need limited store Wednesday, April 22 • talked to Drew Endy about project design • suggested changing from cascading enzyme reactions to one simple reaction • ribozyme that needs two signals • avoid phosphorylation, amplification or branching reactions • can rely on prostanoids to diffuse since they are hydrophobic • problem: need to get collagen debris into the cell • solution: build transporter enzyme of sorts Thursday, April 23 • discussed the idea of a collagen transporter • tried to find literature on channel in nature, not much success • looked into how this would regulate luciferase activity • could cut gene to activate it • could stop inhibiting transcription of DNA Tuesday, April 28 • wrote an email to Roger Kamm who knows collagen structure models • was referred to other papers on subject • some useful, others a bit confusing • wrote email to Drew Endy and Christina Smolke on ribozymes Wednesday, April 29 • called Chris Anderson who made the tumor killing bacteria • explained how TKB worked, what issues it had • realized some of the problems/research is unrelated • heard our project summary • emailed Agi Stachowiak, chemistry expert and knowledgeable with collagen • arranged meeting for next week • received several research papers to read on collagen/MMP Thursday, April 30 • heard back from Christina Smolke • need to read her paper • most of this is still at work in lab, not proven yet • heard a presentation on how to give a good talk • took some notes for future reference • kinds of audience, how to design slides, etc. • for collagen transporter: read up on TRAPP enzyme and integrins from papers • decided that both enzymes were not what we wanted, involved mostly collagen production • no known channel, procollagen spat out using exocytosis from ER/Golgi apparatus • try to reverse this procedure? • debated a chimeric receptor • fuse together antibody specificity with endocystosis receptors • decided that ribozyme would inhibit luciferase mRNA from translation • use our signals to in turn inhibit it Monday, May 4 • met with Agi Stachowiak, talked about collagen structure • got link to website that explains collagen degradation • advice: look for upregulation of collagenases • advice: piggyback on endocytosis of collagen for breakdown • decided that endocytosis was most likely to work • works better than channel Tuesday, May 5 • found possible collagen receptor • paper mentions that it leads to endocytosis • problem: generally also fuses with lysosome and leads to degradation • solution: can be delayed by chemicals • solution: could possibly modify liposomes to break after endocytosis • decided to go with uPARAP/Endo 180 enzyme Wednesday, May 6 • first round of Final Presentations • took notes on various groups ideas • worked on rough Powerpoint presentation template Thursday, May 7 • looked at ribozyme paper again, tried to decipher figures • read up on various aptamers • most of the research is a work in progress • some peptide, hormone, lipid sensors in consideration Sunday, May 10 •
• compiled project log entries, made a google doc for final tweaking made rough draft of technical documents started to put together Powerpoint presentation for Wednesday Tuesday, May 11 • finished up slides, practiced presentation • entered Endo180 part into the registry • collected DNA sequence from paper Wednesday, May 12 • polished and completed technical documents • finalized project log ‐End of Entries‐ MIT OpenCourseWare
http://ocw.mit.edu 20.020 Introduction to Biological Engineering Design
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- Spring '06