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Unformatted text preview: 1. It is statistically so unlikely to have a single molecule initiate cancer that we must reject the hypothesis. 2. Since initiation of cancer is a multi-stage process, the probability of failure at one stage is reasonable. 3. Metabolic processing of chemicals makes likely that the toxic form will not reach its target. 4. Defense mechanisms exist at every stage of the process, so one would have to assume that all pro-carcinogenic steps succeed, while all defense steps fail. 5. Extrapolation of doses from test animals to humans by orders of magnitude is scientifically invalid. 6. Use of non-threshold models presents goals that are economically and technologically infeasible....
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- Spring '06