{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

lecture22 - 3.051J/20.340J Lecture 22 Tissue Engineering...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–6. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
1 3.051 J / 20 .340 J Lecture 22 Tissue Engineering Tissue Engineering : a field that seeks to replace, repair or enhance biological function at the scale of a tissue or organ by manipulating cells via their extra- cellular environment Objectives: 1. Fulfill a biomechanical role (bone, cartilage) 2. Replace physiological function (liver, nerve) 3. Deliver secretory products (insulin) 4. A combination of the above 3 Main Approaches: 1. Extracorpeal/cell encapsulation (3) 2. In vitro synthesis (1-4) 3. In vivo synthesis (1-4)
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
2 3.051 J / 20 .340 J 1. Extracorpeal/Cell Encapsulation Method: 1. Encapsulate cells of interest in semipermeable membrane 2. Implant encapsulated device or connect ex vivo 3. Cells secrete product therapy 4. Remove/disconnect device when therapy concluded O 2 , nutrients T cells, B cells CO 2 , waste Cells suspended in gel Semipermeable membrane Therapeutic molecules Immune system: Ab, Advantages : ¾ Natural theraputic response from living cells ¾ Use of nonhost cells—immunoisolation Issues: ¾ Potential for undesirable immune response from adsorption of complement proteins (similar to blood filtration membranes) ¾ Potential for thrombosis formation (Anti-coagulants used during ex vivo treatment) ¾ Potential for rupture of implanted devices
Image of page 2
3 3.051 J / 20 .340 J Applications Investigated: ¾ Diabetes treatment * ¾ Chronic pain * ¾ Neurodegenerative diseases: ALS (Lou Gehrig’s disease, neuromuscular), Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, Huntington’s disease (progressive brain death) ¾ Dwarfism ¾ Anemia/Hemophelia ¾ Macular degeneration (blindness) ¾ Cancer ¾ Liver Failure * * = clinical trials Device Examples Encapsulated Islets (Islet Technology Inc., St Paul, MN) CapCell: implantable membrane-encapsulated islets for glucose regulation Cells: insulin-producing islets Use: long-term treatment of diabetes Device: alginate-based membrane confines islets Treatment: islets transplanted into patient’s pancreas; patients’ blood flows thru membrane; islets detect glucose level variations & respond through insulin production Status: preclinical trials (islet transplantation in clinical trials) Islet cells Alginate-based membranes Figure by MIT OCW.
Image of page 3

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
4 3.051 J / 20 .340 J Arbios Systems, Inc. (recently acquired from Circe Biomedical) HepatAssist System: an extracorporeal, bioartificial liver support system Cells: primary porcine hepatocytes (pig liver cells) Use: temporary liver function for transplant candidates Device: hollow fiber bioreactor, oxygenator, pump Treatment: plasma circulated through bioreactor and recombined with blood cells Status: Phase I trials completed Figure removed for copyright reasons.
Image of page 4
5 3.051
Image of page 5

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 6
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern