lecture22

lecture22 - 3.051J/20.340J Lecture 22 Tissue Engineering...

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1 3.051J/20.340J Lecture 22 Tissue Engineering Tissue Engineering : a field that seeks to replace, repair or enhance biological function at the scale of a tissue or organ by manipulating cells via their extra- cellular environment Objectives: 1. Fulfill a biomechanical role (bone, cartilage) 2. Replace physiological function (liver, nerve) 3. Deliver secretory products (insulin) 4. A combination of the above 3 Main Approaches: 1. Extracorpeal/cell encapsulation (3) 2. In vitro synthesis (1-4) 3. In vivo synthesis (1-4)
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2 3.051J/20.340J 1. Extracorpeal/Cell Encapsulation Method: 1. Encapsulate cells of interest in semipermeable membrane 2. Implant encapsulated device or connect ex vivo 3. Cells secrete product therapy 4. Remove/disconnect device when therapy concluded O 2 , nutrients T cells, B cells CO 2 , waste Cells suspended in gel Semipermeable membrane Therapeutic molecules Immune system: Ab, Advantages : ¾ Natural theraputic response from living cells ¾ Use of nonhost cells—immunoisolation Issues: ¾ Potential for undesirable immune response from adsorption of complement proteins (similar to blood filtration membranes) ¾ Potential for thrombosis formation (Anti-coagulants used during ex vivo treatment) ¾ Potential for rupture of implanted devices
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3 3.051J/20.340J Applications Investigated: ¾ Diabetes treatment * ¾ Chronic pain * ¾ Neurodegenerative diseases: ALS (Lou Gehrig’s disease, neuromuscular), Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, Huntington’s disease (progressive brain death) ¾ Dwarfism ¾ Anemia/Hemophelia ¾ Macular degeneration (blindness) ¾ Cancer ¾ Liver Failure * * = clinical trials Device Examples Encapsulated Islets (Islet Technology Inc., St Paul, MN) CapCell: implantable membrane-encapsulated islets for glucose regulation Cells: insulin-producing islets Use: long-term treatment of diabetes Device: alginate-based membrane confines islets Treatment: islets transplanted into patient’s pancreas; patients’ blood flows thru membrane; islets detect glucose level variations & respond through insulin production Status: preclinical trials (islet transplantation in clinical trials) Islet cells Alginate-based membranes Figure by MIT OCW.
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4 3.051J/20.340J Arbios Systems, Inc. (recently acquired from Circe Biomedical) HepatAssist System: an extracorporeal, bioartificial liver support system Cells: primary porcine hepatocytes (pig liver cells) Use: temporary liver function for transplant candidates Device: hollow fiber bioreactor, oxygenator, pump Treatment: plasma circulated through bioreactor and recombined with blood cells Status: Phase I trials completed Figure removed for copyright reasons.
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5 3.051J/20.340J
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lecture22 - 3.051J/20.340J Lecture 22 Tissue Engineering...

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