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lecture23 - 1 3.051J/20.340J Lecture 23 Tissue Engineering...

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1 3.051 J / 20 .340 J Lecture 23 Tissue Engineering II Case Examples 1. Diabetes Treatment by Cell Encapsulation Diabetes Mellitus (Type I or insulin-dependent): pancreatic disorder in which pancreas ceases to produce insulin 100M cases worldwide 15M cases in U.S. $94B in treatment annually Symptoms: tiredness, weight loss, extreme thirst Note: In Type II diabetes, insulin is manufactured but not used. Traditional Therapy : Daily insulin injections Problem: abnormal release pattern generates long-term complications Blindness Loss of circulation in limbs (frequently requires amputation) Kidney failure What is Insulin? hormone (MW ~6 kD) released in response to blood glucose levels assists cells in glucose absorption
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3.051 J / 20 .340 J 2 Pancreas : an endocrine gland, incorporating: ¾ Pancreatic Acini: release digestive enzymes to the duodenum ¾ Islets of Langerhans (1-2% of pancreas vol.): release insulin to bloodstream Cell Encapsulation Therapy 1 st reported in mid-1970’s (W.L. Chick, Joslin Res. Lab., Boston) glucose homeostasis achieved in rats Tubular implants in pancreatectomized dogs, early 1990’s (R.P. Lanza) Pancreas Islet of Langerhans PVC-PAN membrane Islets ~5 µ m acrylic housing
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3.051 J / 20 .340 J 3 - Implanted in peritoneal (abdominal) cavity - Membrane connected to vasculature by PTFE grafts - No exogenous insulin required for > 10 weeks - Little fibrosis up to 30 weeks (biocompatible acrylic) - Mechanisms of failure: a) membrane rupture (80-90% of devices by 5-7 mo.)
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