111705 - BE.342/442 Tuesday, November 17, 2005 Topic: DNA...

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BE.342/442 Tuesday, November 17, 2005 Topic: DNA Molecular Machines Administrative : Take-home midterm due today. DNA has become a scaffold material with applications beyond genetics and nanotechnology. Many biological materials have self-similarity at multiple length scales, or fractal character. This idea might inspire you to conjure up your own ideas about nanotechnology. Don’t worry about what other people think about your idea! A book that might inspire you: Michael Gross, Travels to the Nanoworld: Miniature Machinery in Nature and Technology . Richard Feynman predicted that nanotechnology would be the next wave in science after his time. Gene Chips Affymetrix, a company located near Intel in the Silicon Valley, has combined semiconductor industry technology with DNA nanotechnology to build a GeneChip™ in which 50-square- micron areas are coated with oligonucleotides that hybridize with fluorescently labeled DNA and RNA fragments. These biochips are able to identify the presence of genes through over 50,000 different probed complementary to the genetic information of interest. A number of companies have mimicked this technology – a sort of “me, too” wave in the biotech industry. DNA Origami Two-dimensional paper can be folded into complex 3-D patterns. Can this idea be applied to DNA? Part of your midterm examination was to find all the possible hydrogen bonds to the nucleic acids. What structures can be achieved by these bonds? Ned Seeman was a postdoc with Alexander Rich here in Building 16 of MIT. He solved early x- ray diffraction patterns of various forms of DNA, which gave him a deep understanding of DNA bonding. After working in Albany, NY, he went to NYU, where he revolutionized DNA nanotechnology through his approach to “DNA origami.” Reference: Junghuei Chen and Nadrian C. Seeman. “Synthesis from DNA of a molecule with the connectivity of a cube.” Nature, 18 April 1991 . Seeman combined cyclized L and R forms of DNA and hybridized them into shapes that look like chains with square links. Once these constructs grew to three links, the ends could be ligated to form a cube shape. Seeman originally analyzed these structures by sorting them by molecular weight and
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This note was uploaded on 11/11/2011 for the course BIO 20.410j taught by Professor Rogerd.kamm during the Spring '03 term at MIT.

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111705 - BE.342/442 Tuesday, November 17, 2005 Topic: DNA...

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