Unformatted text preview: Effect of laminar shear stress on cell alignment (Dewey
et al. 1981) Photos removed due to copyright considerations. See Dewey, C.F., et al. "The dynamic response of vascular endothelial cells to fluid shear stress." J Biomech Eng. 1981 Aug;103(3):177-85. No flow Laminar shear stress� applied external
force mechanosensitive ion
structural proteins Signaling
D in protein
synthesis or post
expressionn Image removed due to copyright considerations. Hanahan & Weinberg, Cell  We know quite a lot about the signaling cascade that follows the initial biochemical
event, leading to morphological changes, variations in various biochemical signals,
changes in gene expression and protein synthesis, but relatively little about how
the initial event is transduced from physical force to biochemical reaction. Mechanotransduction: Hair cell stimulation tip link tension in tip
link increases stereocilium Image removed due to
copyright considerations. SEM of the
stereocilia on the
surface of a single
hair cell (Hudspeth) Image removed due to
copyright considerations. Tension in the tip
link activates a
ion channel, leading
fluctuations. Structure of a Mechano-Sensitive Ion
Channel (MscL, large conductance)
Chang, et al., Science, 1998 Membrane stresses alter pore geometry and
control the exchange of ions Images removed due to copyright considerations. Steered Molecular Dynamics� For each atom:� 2 N d xi
mi 2 = Â Fij
j =1 † i= 1, …N Fij represents the force applied to the ith atom by
the jth atom (all the force interactions),
determined as the gradient of the potential
Steered molecular dynamics (SMD) is the forced
unfolding of a protein to reveal new
conformational states. Molecular dynamics simulation
of channel regulation by
(Gullingsgrud, et al., Biophys J, 2001) Images removed due to copyright considerations. See Figures 1 and 9 in Gullingsrud, Justin, Dorina Kosztin, and Klaus Schulten. "Structural Determinants of MscL Gating Studied by Molecular Dynamics Simulations." Biophys J, Vol. 80, No. 5 (May 2001), p. 2074-2081. http://www.biophysj.org/cgi/content/full/80/5/2074 But other evidence suggests that the pore increases to >20 angstroms! Structure of MscS (“small” conductance) mechano-sensitive channel, is� now also known and studies are underway to identify the mechanism of� operation. (Bass et al., Science, 2003)� Image removed due to copyright considerations. Selective binding to� cytoskeletons after stretch� (Sawada & Sheetz, 2002) •� Triton X-100 insoluble cytoskeletons
•� Incubated with cytoskeletal proteins
having a photocleavable biotin tag w/
and w/o 10% stretch
•� Focal adhesion kinase, paxillin,
p130Cas, PKB/Akt all preferentially
bound Binding of proteins is influenced by� stretch of cytoskeleton� Can it be due to induced conformational
changes? Image removed due to copyright considerations.
See Figure 3 in Sawada, Y., and M. P. Sheetz.
"Force transduction by Triton cytoskeletons."
J Cell Biol. 2002 Feb 18;156(4):609-15.
http://www.jcb.org/cgi/content/full/156/4/609 Strength of integrin bonds to ECM ligands� Images removed due to copyright considerations. See Figure 1A and 2 in Lehenkari, P., and M. Horton. "Single Integrin Molecule Adhesion Forces in Intact Cells Measured by Atomic Force Microscopy." Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999 Jun 16;259(3):645-50 AFM used to measure the strength of
integrin bonds to various RGD ligands.
Single bond forces were 32-97 pN. Lower forces (~ 10 pN or less?) are
likely adequate to produce
conformational changes. Lehenkari & Horton, BBRC, 1999 Potential transduction mechanisms involving� changes in molecular conformation� Shear-stress
ECM or CSK
attachments “Sensing” proteins
tethered to the CSK
or at focal adhesion
sites Some Force Estimates� A shear stress of 1 Pa exerts a 1
pN force on a 1 mm2 area.
A globular protein complex ~100
nm in diameter would
experience a 1 pN force in a
linear shear flow corresponding
to a shear stress of 1 Pa. Image removed due to copyright considerations. Significant protein
conformational changes occur
for forces in the range of ~10
Magnetic traps can exert forces
of ~10 pN per integrin bond.
Davies et al., Ann. Rev. Physiol., 1997 SMD of fibronectin (Gao, Craig, Vogel, Schulten, JMB, 2002) Images removed due to copyright considerations.
See Figures 2 and 3 in Gao, Mu, David Craig, Viola Vogel, and Klaus Schulten.
"Identifying unfolding intermediates of FN-III10 by steered molecular dynamics." Journal of Molecular Biology, 323:939-950 (2002). Applied force = 500pN Unfolding is important in the
binding sites. TEM cytoskeleton photograph, J. Hartwig, Harvard University.
TEM of Courtesy of J. Hartwig. Used with permission. cytoskeleton, Actin is another candidate
When stressed, cells form
stress fibers, mediated by a
variety of actin-binding
proteins (a-actinin, fascin).
The structure is known, and
computations can take
advantage of filament
But, a force of 10 pN
supported by a single actin
filament (E~109 Pa) produces
a strain of ~2x10-4!!) Structure of actin.�
Image courtesy of Prof. Willy Wriggers,
Used with permission. � ...
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