neoplasia

neoplasia - Neoplasia Mar 14, 2005 Robbins and Cotran...

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Neoplasia Mar 14, 2005 Robbins and Cotran Chapter 7 pp. 269-339
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Definitions Neoplasia - new growth – Abnormal mass of tissue with growth that exceeds and is uncoordinated with that of the surrounding normal tissues; autonomous Tumor - synonymous with neoplasm Cancer - common term for malignant neoplasm •N e o p l a
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Benign tumors • Based on parenchymal component • Mesenchymal tumors add -oma to cell of origin – Fibroblasts = fibroma – Cartilage = chondroma – Osteoblasts = osteoma • Epithelial tumors can be named for cell of origin, microscopic architecture, or macroscopic appearance Adenoma = glandular appearance OR from glandular tissue
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Malignant tumors • Mesenchymal tumors usually called sarcomas – Fibrosarcoma, liposarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma • Epithelial tumors usually called carcinomas – Adenocarcinoma = glandular growth pattern – Squamous cell carcinoma = squamous pattern – Can either be named for organ of origin, or “poorly differentiated” or “undifferentiated” Many exceptions
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Liver tumors • Focal nodular hyperplasia - spontaneous • Nodular regenerative hyperplasia - portal hypertension • Hemangiomas - benign blood vessel tumors • Liver cell adenomas - rarely become malignant • Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) - common • Cholangiocarcinoma - much less common
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Biology of tumor growth 1) Malignant change in target cell (transformation) 2) Growth of the transformed cells 3) Local invasion 4) Distant metastases Generally, morphologic criteria can be used to distinguish benign and malignant tumors, but not always
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Differentiation and anaplasia • Differentiation = extent to which neoplastic cells resemble normal cells • Anaplasia = lack of differentiation – Hallmark of transformation – But cancer is not “reverse differentiation”
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neoplasia - Neoplasia Mar 14, 2005 Robbins and Cotran...

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