neoplasia - Neoplasia Robbins and Cotran Chapter 7 pp...

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Neoplasia Mar 14, 2005 Robbins and Cotran Chapter 7 pp. 269-339
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Definitions Neoplasia - new growth Abnormal mass of tissue with growth that exceeds and is uncoordinated with that of the surrounding normal tissues; autonomous Tumor - synonymous with neoplasm Cancer - common term for malignant neoplasm Neoplasms have parenchyma and stroma Benign and malignant tumors each have their own nomenclature
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Benign tumors Based on parenchymal component Mesenchymal tumors add -oma to cell of origin Fibroblasts = fibroma Cartilage = chondroma Osteoblasts = osteoma Epithelial tumors can be named for cell of origin, microscopic architecture, or macroscopic appearance Adenoma = glandular appearance OR from glandular tissue
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Malignant tumors Mesenchymal tumors usually called sarcomas Fibrosarcoma, liposarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma Epithelial tumors usually called carcinomas Adenocarcinoma = glandular growth pattern Squamous cell carcinoma = squamous pattern Can either be named for organ of origin, or “poorly differentiated” or “undifferentiated” Many exceptions
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Liver tumors Focal nodular hyperplasia - spontaneous Nodular regenerative hyperplasia - portal hypertension Hemangiomas - benign blood vessel tumors Liver cell adenomas - rarely become malignant Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) - common Cholangiocarcinoma - much less common
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Biology of tumor growth 1) Malignant change in target cell (transformation) 2) Growth of the transformed cells 3) Local invasion 4) Distant metastases Generally, morphologic criteria can be used to distinguish benign and malignant tumors, but not always
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Differentiation and anaplasia Differentiation = extent to which neoplastic cells resemble normal cells Anaplasia = lack of differentiation Hallmark of transformation But cancer is not “reverse differentiation” In general, benign tumors are well differentiated Malignant tumors range from well differentiated to undifferentiated
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  • Spring '03
  • RogerD.Kamm
  • primary tumor

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