7_340_7

7_340_7 - Under the Radar Screen: How Bugs Trick Our Immune...

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Marie-Eve Paquet and Gijsbert Grotenbreg Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research Under the Radar Screen: How Bugs Trick Our Immune Defenses Session 7: Cytokines
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HHV-8 • Discovered in the 1980’s at the beginning of the AIDS epidemic • Gamma herpes virus that only occurs in humans • Causes Kaposi’s sarcoma (proliferation of vasculature), mostly in HIV patients HIV-1 • Retrovirus (RNA genome) that causes AIDS • T tropic or Macrophage tropic strains • Enters target cells through CD4 and possibly other co- receptors.
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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) Biology p24, p6, p7, p17 : proteins encoded by the gag gene that provide structural elements of the virus Reverse transcriptase: transcribes the viral RNA into double-stranded DNA. Integrase: integrates the DNA produced by reverse transcriptase into the host's genome. Protease: HIV's gag and pol genes are produced as larger combination proteins and the specific protease used by HIV cleaves these into separate functional units. Gp120: Exposed on the surface of the viral envelope and binds to the CD4 receptor on any target cell that has such a receptor, particularly the helper T-cell. Gp41: glycoprotein is non-covalently bound to gp120, and provides assistance in fusion with the host cell Tat: "Trans-Activator of Transcription“ helps HIV reproduce by compensating for a defect in its genome: the HIV RNA initially has a hairpin-structured portion which prevents full transcription occurring. However, a small number of RNA transcripts will be made, which allow the Tat protein to be produced. Tat then binds to and phosphorylates cellular factors, eliminating the effect of the hairpin RNA structure and allowing transcription of the HIV DNA (Kim, 2001). This itself
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7_340_7 - Under the Radar Screen: How Bugs Trick Our Immune...

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