mdtm_2004_answrs - 9.09J/7.29J - Cellular Neurobiology,...

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7.29 J 9.09 Cellular Neurobiology Answers to 2004 Midterm Test Question 1. a) 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV ). A specific blocker for the NMDA subtype of glutamate receptor. When applied to hippocampal CA1 cells, it prevents LTP without interfering much with normal synaptic transmission. b) Adenylyl Cyclase The enzyme that synthesizes cyclic AMP from ATP. A crucial second-messenger enzyme in facilitation of the Aplysia sensory neuron-motoneuron synapses implicated in behavioral sensitization. c) Sarin . Nerve gas (used in Tokyo subway attacks). An inhibitor of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. d) Belladonna ("Beautiful woman") Source of Atropine, an antagonist of acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors. e) Norepinephrine (= Noradrenaline). Acts on alpha-adrenergic receptors on presynaptic nerve terminals to potentiate neuromuscular transmission (Part of Orbelli effect). Also a CNS neurotransmitter made in locus coeruleus cells -- but not in material for this test. f) Tetraethylammonium (TEA) Blocker of potassium channels in squid giant axon. Used in pharmacological dissection of sodium and potassium currents and conductances during action potential there. g) Differential Amplifier. The principal component in a voltage clamp. An electronic circuit which senses the voltage (difference in electrical potential) between two input wires and sends a proportional current from its output wire. h) Schaeffer Collateral. A fiber in the mammalian hippocampus which terminates as a presynaptic input onto the pyramidal cells in region CA1. Important in LTP studies. i) Tetanus toxin. A bacterial protein -- a serine protease which specifically cleaves the vesicle protein synaptobrevin and so blocks transmitter release from the presynaptic terminal. j) Succinylcholine.
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mdtm_2004_answrs - 9.09J/7.29J - Cellular Neurobiology,...

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