MIT1_018JF09_Lec01

MIT1_018JF09_Lec01 - 1.018/7.30J Lecture 1- Introduction to...

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1.018/7.30J Lecture 1- Introduction to Ecology 2009 Readings Smith and Smith Chapter 1. Vernadskii “The Biosphere” Carruthers “Locusts in the Red Sea” Remmert “Ecology: The Basic Concept” Rowe “Biological Fallacy: Life =Organisms” (same document) Redox Handout Evolution of Definitions of Ecology Ecology = from the Greek root OIKOS, “at home”, and OLOGY, “the study of” Haeckle (1870): “By ecology we mean the body of knowledge concerning the economy of Nature - the investigation of the total relations of the animal to its inorganic and organic environment.” Burdon-Sanderson (1890s): Elevated Ecology to one of the three natural divisions of Biology: Physiology - Morphology - Ecology Elton (1927) : “Scientific natural history” Andrewartha (1961): “The scientific study of the distribution and abundance of organisms” Odum (1963): “The structure and function of Nature” Our Definition : “Ecology is the scientific study of the processes regulating the distribution and abundance of organisms and the interactions among them, and the study of how these organisms in turn mediate the transport and transformation of energy and matter in the biosphere (i.e., the study of the design of ecosystem structure and function). Beyond Fundamental Ecology Applied Ecology : Using ecological principles to maintain conditions necessary for the continuation of present day life on earth. Industrial Ecology : The design of the industrial infrastructure such that it consists of a series of interlocking "technological ecosystems" interfacing with global natural ecosystems. Industrial ecology takes the pattern and processes of natural ecosystems as a design for sustainability. It represents a shift in paradigm from conquering nature to becoming nature. Ecological Engineering : Unlike industrial ecology, the focus of Ecological Engineering is on the manipulation of natural ecosystems by humans for our purposes, using small amounts of supplemental energy to control systems in which the main energy drives are still coming from non-human sources. It is the design of new ecosystems for human purposes, using the self-organizing principles of natural ecosystems . [Note: The popular definition of ecological engineering is "the design of human society with its natural environment for the benefit of both.". What is the logical flaw in this definition ?] Ecological Economics : Integrating ecology and economics in such a way that economic and environmental policies are reinforcing rather than mutually destructive. Urban ecology:
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MIT1_018JF09_Lec01 - 1.018/7.30J Lecture 1- Introduction to...

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