0208_syntax_2

0208_syntax_2 - Psycholinguistics Syntax II 9.59 24.905...

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Psycholinguistics: Syntax II 9.59; 24.905 February 5, 2005 Ted Gibson
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Syntax lectures 1. Lecture 1 1. Parts of speech 2. Constituent structure 3. Argument structure of words 2. Lecture 2 1. Argument structure of words (continued) 2. Cross-linguistic word order differences 3. Arguments vs. Modifiers: X-bar theory 4. The categories Infl and Comp 5. Constructions 1. Yes-no questions 2. Wh-questions 3. Topicalization 4. Relative clauses 5. Passive
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Argument structure: Word-dependent phrase structure VP expansion rules depend on the verb involved: Philip will buy the books. (buy: VP Î V NP) * Philip will sleep the books. (sleep: VP Î V) * Philip will put the books. (put: VP Î V NP PP) * Philip will say the books. (say: VP Î V CP) Rules involving a word-level category (e.g., Verb, Noun, etc.) depend on the word involved.
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Categories other than verbs also have argument structures •N o u n s : Compare the noun “destruction” with its verbal form “destroy”: The guitarists destroyed the hotel room. the guitarists' destruction of the hotel room destroy: subject: NP, agent complements: NP, patient destruction: subject: NP, agent (optional) complements: PP (of), patient (optional)
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Categories other than verbs also have argument structures •Noun s : governor, mayor, president: complements: PP (of), theme (optional) the governor of California the mayor of Boston the president of IBM
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Categories other than verbs also have argument structures • Prepositions: in, near, beside, . ..: complements: NP, location to: complements: NP, goal
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Categories other than verbs also have argument structures •A d j e c t i v e s : proud: complements: PP (of), theme “proud of Mary” When adjectives don't have complements, they are often modifiers of noun phrases. the proud woman the tall man
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Categories other than verbs also have argument structures • Complementizers (Comp): that, whether: complements: an Infl phrase (IP), no role “John thinks that Mary is intelligent.”
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This note was uploaded on 11/11/2011 for the course BIO 9.07 taught by Professor Ruthrosenholtz during the Spring '04 term at MIT.

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0208_syntax_2 - Psycholinguistics Syntax II 9.59 24.905...

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