0210_syntax_3

0210_syntax_3 - Psycholinguistics: Syntax III 9.59; 24.905...

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Psycholinguistics: Syntax III 9.59; 24.905 February 10, 2005 Ted Gibson
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Syntax lectures 1. Lecture 1 1. Parts of speech 2. Constituent structure 3. Argument structure of words 2. Lecture 2 1. Argument structure of words (continued) 2. Cross-linguistic word order differences 3. Arguments vs. Modifiers: X-bar theory 3. Lecture 3 1. The categories Infl and Comp 2. Constructions 1. Yes-no questions 2. Wh-questions 3. Topicalization 4. Relative clauses 5. Passive 3. Practice sentences
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Syntax lectures 4. Lecture 4 1. Representational issues 1. Finite state transition networks? 2. Trees? 3. Empty categories? 2. Sentence parsing
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X-bar Theory The structure of an X-bar category, including modifiers: XP XP ModP post-head modifier YP X’ specifier X W P Z P head complements
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X-bar Theory X-bar: A general notation for all phrase structure. Note: X-bar may be wrong . Reasons to know it: ¾ It is simple. ¾ It is general: It covers all of phrase structure. ¾ It provides a notation for important phrase structure generalizations (which are probably correct): Arguments vs. modifiers.
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X-bar Theory X-bar rules (English word order): Complement rule: X’ Æ X WP* Specifier rule: XP Æ YP X’ Modifier rules: Post head: XP Æ XP ZP; X’ Æ X’ ZP Pre-head: XP Æ ZP XP; X’ Æ ZP X’
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Examples: X-bar structures of NPs More complex NPs: “the student of physics” (Note: “of physics” is an argument, because it is part of the core meaning of “student” that a student studies something.)
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Examples: X-bar structures of NPs More complex NPs: “the student of physics” NP DetP N’ Det’ N PP Det student P’ the P NP of N physics
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Examples: X-bar structures of NPs More complex NPs: “the tall student of physics”
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Examples: X-bar structures of NPs More complex NPs: “the tall student of physics” NP DetP N’ Det’ AdjP N’ Det Adj’ N PP the Adj student P’ tall P NP of N physics
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More complex NPs: “the tall student of physics with red hair” Note: “with red hair” is a modifier. It is not a necessary component of the meaning of “student”.
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More complex NPs: “the tall student of physics with red hair” NP NP PP DetP N’ P’ NP Det’ AdjP N’ P N’ Det Adj’ N PP with AdjP N’ the Adj student P’ Adj’ N tall P NP Adj hair of N red physics
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More complex NPs: “the tall student of physics with red hair” Omitting redundant non-branching nodes
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0210_syntax_3 - Psycholinguistics: Syntax III 9.59; 24.905...

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