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0303_sentence_4

0303_sentence_4 - Sentence comprehension IV 9.59 24.905...

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Sentence comprehension IV 9.59; 24.905 March 3, 2005 Ted Gibson
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To do today The dependency locality theory Review integration; New: storage Ambiguity effects (Gibson, 2000) An interesting test case of resource theories: Chinese sentence comprehension (Hsiao & Gibson, 2003)
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What sources of information do people use in processing sentences? Syntactic structure Word frequency Plausibility Discourse context Syntactic complexity Intonational information
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Syntactic information use in sentence processing: The Dependency Locality Theory (DLT, Gibson, 1998, 2000) Resources are required for two aspects of language comprehension: (a) Integration: connecting the current word into the structure built thus far; (b) Storage: Predicting categories to complete the current structure.
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Syntactic resource hypotheses Frazier (1978): Minimal Attachment & Late Closure: Ambiguity resolution only Assumed to be modular: Applying before other sources of information use Gibson (1998; 2000): Syntactic storage and integration Apply in both ambiguous and unambiguous sentences Assumed to be non-modular: Interact immediately with other sources of information (but this is not a crucial part of the theory).
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Integration complexity depends on the distance or locality between the head and dependent being integrated. S Y 1 Y 2 Y 3 Y 4 h 1 XP h 2 Y 5 Computational motivation: Integrating h 2 to h 1 involves re-accessing h 1 : h 1 ’s activation may have decayed for all the integrations that have taken place since it was last highly activated. Interference of intervening elements: similar to h 1 and/or h 2
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Initial Integration Distance Hypothesis Gibson (1998); Warren & Gibson (2002, Cognition ) The difficulty of integrating a new word h 2 to h 1 is proportional to the number of discourse objects and events ( nouns and verbs , roughly) which were introduced since h 1 was last processed.
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Locality effects in unambiguous structures Gibson (1998, Cognition ); Grodner & Gibson (in press, Cognitive Science) Experiment 1: Object-extracted relative clause: The reporter who the photographer sent to the editor hoped for a good story. Subject-extracted relative clause: The reporter who sent the photographer to the editor hoped for a good story.
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Experiment 1: DLT vs. RTs (Grodner & Gibson, in press, Cognitive Science ) Linear model: r 2 = .582, p < .001 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 Reading Time / Word (msec) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 DLT Integration Cost
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Other effects of dependency distances Many construction comparisons cross- linguistically: Heaviness effects: Put the heavy constituent later (Bever, 1970; Hawkins, 1994) Nested vs. non-nested structures Nested vs. cross-serial dependencies (Bach et al. 1986)
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Nesting complexity effects (1) The reporter disliked the editor. (2) The reporter [ who the senator attacked ] disliked the editor.
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