0308_semantic1

0308_semantic1 - Processing pragmatic and referential...

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Processing pragmatic and referential information I 9.59 / 24.905 March 8, 2005 Ted Gibson
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On-Line Language Processor CENTRAL PROCESSES Semantics/Discourse Syntax Lexicon Auditory Visual INPUT SIGNALS
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To do today and next time: non-syntactic information in sentence comprehension 1. Information flow in sentence processing Grammatical constructions have functions. E.g., Restrictive modifier: pick an item from a set. 2. Figurative / non-literal language: 1. Common types of figurative language 2. Interpreting figurative language 3. Grice’s Maxims of cooperative conversation Implicature: the non-literal information that an utterance conveys 3. One theory of processing some non-literal language: The Referential Theory The principle of parsimony The principle of referential support 4. Modularity re-visited: Can discourse information guide syntactic processing? 5. Pragmatic processing: Implicatures and on-line sentence processing When do people compute contrast sets?
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Information flow and sentence complexity Edward Gibson, Timothy Desmet, Dan Grodner, Duane Watson & Kara Ko
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Nested structures are more complex than non-nested structures (1) # The student who the professor who the scientist collaborated with had advised copied the article. (2) The scientist collaborated with the professor who had advised the student who copied the article.
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The Dependency Locality Theory (DLT, Gibson, 1998, 2000) Resources are required for two aspects of language comprehension: 1. Integration: connecting the current word into the structure built thus far; 2. Storage: Predicting categories to complete the current structure. Syntactic predictions : processing cost for each head that is required to complete the current string as a grammatical sentence
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2 Predictions of storage cost theory: Prediction 1: People should read (1) faster than the same region in (2): (1) The reporter who the senator attacked ignored the president . (2) The fact that the reporter who the senator attacked ignored the president bothered the editor.
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Prediction 2: Object-modifying RCs as in (2) should be processed faster than subject-modifying RCs as in (1): (1) The reporter who the senator attacked ignored the president. (2) The president ignored the reporter who the senator attacked. All theories of nesting make this prediction.
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Experiment 1 Three factors: (1) Modifier position: subject-modifying, object- modifying (2) Extraction type: subject-extracted, object- extracted (3) Embedding: Embedded, not embedded
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Experiment 1 materials (a) Subject modifier, object-extracted (SO), not embedded The reporter who the senator attacked on Tuesday ignored the president. (b) Object modifier, object-extracted (OO), not embedded The president ignored the reporter who the senator attacked on Tuesday. (c) Subject modifier, subject-extracted (SS), not embedded
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0308_semantic1 - Processing pragmatic and referential...

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