0315_sem_pra_pr3

0315_sem_pra_pr3 - Processing pragmatic and referential...

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Processing pragmatic and referential information III 9.59 / 24.905 March 15, 2005 Ted Gibson
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Contrastive Inferences Q: What time is it? A: Some people are already leaving. It’s late. Q: How is the party? A: Some people are already leaving. The party isn’t very good. • Gricean implicatures: When are inferences computed? • What aspects of the context enter into their computation?
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Dependency Between Restrictive Modification and Contextual Contrast Can you pass Tim the tall cup? !x[cup(x) & tall(x)] reference set x[cup(x) & ¬ tall(x)] contrast set
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Diagram removed for copyright reasons. Contrast Effect: Eye-movements converge more quickly on the target and there are fewer looks to the competitor in the presence of a contrast set.
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Two Classes of Explanation for Contrastive Inferences (1) Form-Based Account Contrastive inference is closely tied to conventional meaning of restrictively modified NPs or to the lexical class of the modifier. Scalar adjectives contain a variable assigned by a contextually relevant comparison class (Seigel, 1980; Bierwisch, 1987) Minimizes the amount of information that is accessed in making contrastive inferences
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0315_sem_pra_pr3 - Processing pragmatic and referential...

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