0407_speech_1

0407_speech_1 - Speech and speech processing 9.59 / 24.905...

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Speech and speech processing 9.59 / 24.905 April 7, 2005 Ted Gibson
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The structure of language Sound structure: phonetics and phonology “cat” = /k/ + /æ/ + /t/ “eat” = /i/ + /t/ “rough” = /r/ + /^/ + /f/
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Language sounds • wi n wi n g • writer vs. rider • Sounds, not the spelling: “rough” = /r^f/
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Summary • Articulatory properties of speech ¾ Distinctive / articulatory features ¾ English consonants and vowels ¾ Information is smeared between segments: co-articulation • Speech perception ¾ Problems: Lack of invariance, smearing ¾ Solutions: Acoustic features; Categorical perception; Motor theory of perception; Use of context • What aspects of speech are learned / innate?
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Phones vs. Phonemes vs. Allophones Phones: acoustically different speech sounds Phonemes: sounds that make a difference in meaning ¾ pot vs. dot Allophones: different phones corresponding to the same phoneme ¾ Spin vs. pin ¾ S[p]in vs. [p h ]in
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Source-Filter Model larynx: buzzy sound source Changeable resonators: ¾ pharynx (throat); ¾ mouth ¾ lips ¾ nose
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Figure by MIT OCW. Velum or Soft Palate Uvula Epiglottis Food Passage Windpipe (Trachea) Vocal Folds Larynx Lips Nose Alveolar Ridge Nasal Passage Hard Palate Mouth Apex Back Tongue SCHEMATIC OF THE VOCAL TRACT
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Key Properties of Speech Formants of voiced sounds (F 1 , F 2 , etc.) – Harmonics: Strongest frequencies (Result from the size and shape of the resonating cavities) Range of human hearing 20Hz-20,000Hz Sound is modulated by manipulating the articulators. ¾ Changes resonance properties (frequencies of formants) ¾ Changes airflow.
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Table removed for copyright reasons. The International Phoentic Alphabet (Phonemes of English).
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Phonemes of the world 40 phonemes in English Range: 11 in Polynesian – 141 in Khoisan (“Bushman”) Total inventory across languages: thousands However, some are very common across all languages (e.g., /m/, /n/, /t/, /d/, /k/, /g/, /s/, /z/): Easy to produce, easy to distinguish
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Consonants : Restricted vocal tract 1. place of articulation (dental vs. velar etc.) 2. manner of articulation (stop vs. nasal vs. fricative etc.)
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0407_speech_1 - Speech and speech processing 9.59 / 24.905...

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