0414_intonation

0414_intonation - Prosody and Intonation 9.59 / 24.905...

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Unformatted text preview: Prosody and Intonation 9.59 / 24.905 April 14, 2005 Ted Gibson Prosody and Intonation Definition of prosody Intonation: pitch and boundaries Timing within intonation phrases Stress Intonational phrasing in production: Two factors: the size of the left-hand constituent, and the size of the right: The Left / Right Boundary (LRB) hypothesis Intonational phrasing in comprehension: The anti- attachment hypothesis. Prosody Prosody: The aspect of a sentences sound that is not specific to the properties of the words in the sentence. Prosodic features include pitch (intonation), timing and stress. E.g.: Different words and syntactic categories, but same prosody: Homer likes to eat. Barney drank his beer. Declarative contour: Pitch falls over the sentence. The words to and his get clipped; eat and beer get lengthened. Minor terminological note: Some researchers use the term intonation as a synonym for prosody Other researchers use the term intonation as a subset of prosody: pitch and pause information. (e.g., Ferreira, 2000) Pitch / Intonation Acoustic Properties The frequency of sound vibrations produced by the vocal chord. This is also called the fundamental frequency or the f . (Speech Range .25 - 30,000Hz) Perceptual Properties The tune of an utterance. What the listener hears as high or low speech. The perceptual properties of pitch are correlated with but not equivalent to the acoustic properties. Doubling the sounds frequency does not mean the sound sounds twice as high (nonlinear). A high frequency for one speaker can be low for another speaker (200HZ is high for an adult male, low for an child). Pitch / Intonation The ToBI annotation system (Tones and break indices) is one popular system used to annotate pitch and boundary information. Attempt: to convert the continuous information in the speech stream having to do with pitch,length, loudness and breaks, and convert this information into a set of categories, which may have some interpretation in the context. * pitch accent (one per intonational phrase) H, L pitch level % boundary tone Ketchup is a vegetable? Ketchup is a vegetable. L* L* H% H* H* L% Graph removed for copyright reasons. H* L L% Pitch contour with ToBI transcriptions for It was the terrorist that kidnapped the ambassador. Intonational Phrasing Speech is segmented into auditory chunks called intonational phrases People pause for a variety of reasons: When having trouble formulating an utterance; External factors: interruptions etc. Natural production: Planning Within planning : intonational phrasing: An intonational phrase is a perceptually defined unit that is correlated with several quantitative measures (Nespor & Vogel, 1987; Selkirk, 1984), none of which are obligatory: Ending with pause Tends to have a pitch accent on the final word of the phrase Lengthening / Stretching of the final word. Intonational Phrasing...
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This note was uploaded on 11/11/2011 for the course BIO 9.07 taught by Professor Ruthrosenholtz during the Spring '04 term at MIT.

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0414_intonation - Prosody and Intonation 9.59 / 24.905...

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