0421_word_readin

0421_word_readin - Visual word recognition / Morphological...

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Unformatted text preview: Visual word recognition / Morphological processing 9.59 / 24.905 April 21, 2005 Ted Gibson A brief taxonomy of writing systems Writing systems: human inventions All represent words at some level. word/morpheme based: logographic . e.g., Chinese (morpheme- based) syllable-based: syllabic . e.g., Japanese kana system. Only about 100 distinct syllables in Japanese, so this is possible. (about 1000 distinct syllables in English). phoneme-based (approximately): alphabetic. e.g., English, Spanish, Russian Chinese: tonal language. Therefore, a syllable- or phoneme-based writing system would be difficult. 4500 characters to represent around 45,000 words. (But not pure logography: many cues to pronunciation) Alphabetic languages Most monotonal languages like English, Spanish are alphabetic (few are syllabic). Alphabetic languages vary widely in terms of the correspondence between phonemes and letters: Shallow orthography: Finnish, Spanish, Serbo-Croation Deep orthography: English, Hebrew: The same letter is often used to signify different sounds in different contexts. Slight trade-off between deep and shallow orthography: deep orthographic languages spell morphologically related but different sounding words similarly. E.g., sign/signal/signify English: non-optimal: spelling rules are influenced from two very different language families: Germanic and Romance. So English spelling is often seemingly arbitrary and exception-ridden. Word perception: Some initial observations Task: Find all the Cs: GQSJCGQRPRCDBCRCPDGGPQCRCD GQSJ C GQRPR C DB C R C PDGGPQ C R C D XCLNZCFNVAKZVXCLNIKWYZXCLKN X C LNZ C FNVAKZVX C LNIKWYZX C LKN Task: Find all the Ss: MZSTYLKVSHWLVZSTXNXWFKYSFNT MZ S TYLKV S HWLVZ S TXNXWFKY S FNT PQCPSGOCSRQPDJSDQRBJRPSGQOP PQCP S GOC S RQPDJ S DQRBJRP S GQOP Word perception: Some initial observations In-class demonstration: recognizing symbols based on their component features. Result: It is hard to find a specific letter when it is hidden among letters with similar features. Word perception: Do we identify the letters and then the words? Or do we read the words holistically, relying on their shapes? Or do we somehow exploit our knowledge of what letters are in what words to see both letters and words more readily? Word perception The evidence suggests that the process is not a uni-directional pass from letter-features to letters to words: 1. Task: Present strings of letters and ask for report of letters: GREAT easier than TRAGE, which is easier than ARGTE 2. Reporting the fifth letter in GREAT is easier than reporting the single letter in -----T The Word Superiority Effect (Wheeler, Reicher) But is it actually easier to see the letters in a word context? Or can they just be guessed more easily even if you miss one of the letters?...
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This note was uploaded on 11/11/2011 for the course BIO 9.07 taught by Professor Ruthrosenholtz during the Spring '04 term at MIT.

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0421_word_readin - Visual word recognition / Morphological...

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