0426_lang_produc

0426_lang_produc - Language production 9.59 24.905 Ted...

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Language production 9.59 / 24.905 April 26, 2005 Ted Gibson
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Stages of Language Production: Attempt 1 Message generation: a conceptual representation of what to say Select words to express concepts Organize words syntactically to convey a message Articulation: Generate auditory/written/signed sequence 2
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Message Generation Message – Conceptual representation independent of particular words Take into account: ¾ Level of politeness ¾ Speech act(s) • Illocutionary force - purpose of utterance (question, command, etc.) ¾ Register (slang vs. formal) ¾ Reference ¾ Listener knowledge 3
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Accounting for Perceiver in the Message • Message includes includes information tailored to specific communicative context: the “common ground” between the speaker and the listener. • Isaacs and Clark (1987) ¾ Two subjects (director and matcher) ordering postcards with pictures of NYC landmarks ¾ Director adjusted descriptions based on combined knowledge of NYC the building with the slanty roof vs. the Citicorp building. 4
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The Message is Independent of Syntax Word order ¾ French noun-adjective: le roi noir ¾ English adjectiv-noun the black king Pro-drop – subject pronoun understood from context in many languages ¾ He is happyvs. Is happy Lexical gap – no word, have to use a phrase ¾ Foreign phrase borrowing • Je ne sais quoi. carte blanche Starting sentences that can’t be completed grammatically ¾ *The dishes that I don’t know where they go I left in the sink. 5
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Word Selection • Select content words • Adult English: ¾ Speaking vocabulary: 45,000-60,000 words ¾ Speaking rate: 120-150 words/min ¾ Selection error rate 1 in 1000 words 6
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Word Organization / Ordering Apply syntactic and discourse rules to determine a word sequence ¾ Discourse function: Old, background information first. • The glass is filled with water. vs. Water fills the glass. ¾ Function words ¾ Inflectional morphemes ¾ Agreement ¾ Long-distance dependencies (wh-transformations, etc) 7
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Word Selection and Ordering are Interrelated I gave $100 to a charity. I gave a charity $100. Either order OK, include preposition or not. I donated $100 to a charity. *I donated a charity $100. Only one order permitted, preposition required • Order of arguments depends on choice of verb 8
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Word Selection and Ordering are Interrelated • Bock (1986) ¾ Task: Alternate (a) describing a picture; and (b) reading a single word. Later asked to identify the pictures and words. Seems like a memory task to the subjects. ¾ Prime word: worship vs. thunder “worship” as prime: “The church is being struck by lightning.” “thunder” as prime: “Lightning is striking the church.” 9
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Word organization affects future word organization in sentence production • Syntactic priming: ¾ The voice of a context sentence affects how a picture is described: • Active voice in the context -> Producing an active sentence • Passive voice in the context -> Producing an passive sentence ¾ The type of direct object / indirect object that have been used most
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0426_lang_produc - Language production 9.59 24.905 Ted...

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