0920_res_sen_com

0920_res_sen_com - Resource use and sentence comprehension...

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Unformatted text preview: Resource use and sentence comprehension 9.591; 24.945 September 20, 2004 Ted Gibson What sources of information do people use in processing sentences? Syntactic structure Word frequency Plausibility Discourse context Intonational information The use of these information sources is constrained by the amount of working memory resources that are available. Hard to process unambiguous sentences Nested (or center-embedded) structures The reporter disliked the editor. The reporter [ who the senator attacked ] disliked the editor. # The reporter [ who the senator [ who John met ] attacked ] disliked the editor. Right-branching (non-nested) control: John met the senator who attacked the reporter who disliked the editor. Cross-linguistic generalization: Nested structures are hard; left- and right-branching structures are not. Japanese: # Obasan-wa [ bebiisitaa-ga [ ani-ga imooto-o ijimeta ] to itta ] to omotteiru aunt-top babysitter-nom older-brother-nom younger-sister- acc bullied that said that thinks My aunt thinks that the babysitter said that my older brother bullied my younger sister Less nested version: easier to understand [ bebiisitaa-ga [ ani-ga imooto-o ijimeta to ] itta to ] obasan-wa omotteiru Syntactic information use in sentence processing: The Dependency Locality Theory (DLT, Gibson, 1998, 2000) Resources are required for two aspects of language comprehension: (a) Integration: connecting the current word into the structure built thus far; (b) Storage / Expectations: Predicting categories to complete the current structure. Syntactic resource hypotheses Frazier (1978): Minimal Attachment & Late Closure: Ambiguity resolution only Assumed to be modular: Applying before other sources of information use Gibson (1998; 2000): Syntactic storage and integration Apply in both ambiguous and unambiguous sentences Assumed to be non-modular: Interact immediately with other sources of information (but this is not a crucial part of the theory). Integration complexity depends on the distance or locality between the head and dependent being integrated. S Y 1 Y 2 Y 3 Y 4 h 1 XP h 2 Y 5 Computational motivation: Integrating h 2 to h 1 involves reactivating h 1 to a target level. Two possible sources of locality effects: 1. Decay of h 1 : h 1 s activation will have decreased for all the integrations that have taken place since it was last highly activated. 2. Interference of similar items between h 1 and h 1 may make h 1 hard to reactivate. Integration complexity depends on the distance or locality between the head and dependent being integrated. Motivations: 1. Linguistic elements are perceived serially....
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This note was uploaded on 11/11/2011 for the course BIO 9.07 taught by Professor Ruthrosenholtz during the Spring '04 term at MIT.

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0920_res_sen_com - Resource use and sentence comprehension...

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