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0927_ev_f - 9.591 24.945 Individual differences in sentence comprehension Working memory capacity and sentence comprehension Ted Gibson Ev

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9.591 / 24.945 Individual differences in sentence comprehension. Working memory capacity and sentence comprehension. September 27, 2004 Department of Brain & Cognitive Sciences MIT
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To do today: Resources and individual differences in sentence comprehension: 1. Just & Carpenter (1992): The single resource (SR) hypothesis 2. Caplan & Waters (1999): The Separate Language Interpretation Resource (SLIR) hypothesis 3. Evidence relevant to each: group differences: high and low span group differences: brain damaged populations dual task performance 4. An orthogonal issue: representing resources independently of language representations (MacDonald & Christianson, 2001)
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Background: Working Memory Working Memory resources visuo-spatial information verbal information (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974; Baddeley, 1986; Vallar & Shallice, 1990; Hanley et al., 1991; Jonides et al., 1993; Shah & Miyake, 1996)
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Background: Working Memory Verbal Working Memory resources natural language comprehension verbally-mediated cognitive tasks (Caplan & Waters, 1999; Terminological note: Working memory = computational resources
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WM and sentence comprehension Research question: Does natural language processing rely on the same pool / overlapping pools of resources as other cognitive tasks? Alternatively, is there a specialized pool of resources solely dedicated to language processing?
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WM and sentence comprehension Just & Carpenter (1992) Single Resource (SR) theory: One generic pool of resources for all verbally-mediated tasks. Separate Language Interpretation Resource (SLIR) theory: At least two pools of resources for verbally-mediated tasks: (1) natural language processing; and (2) other non-linguistic verbally- mediated tasks.
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WM and sentence comprehension: C&W distinguish between interpretive (on-line) and post- interpretive (off-line) processes in sentence comprehension. Definition of interpretive processes: Automatic, first-pass language processing (“extraction of meaning from a linguistic signal”, p. 79). This includes using all sources of information. This process breaks down on nested examples: # The man that the woman that the child hugged kissed laughed.
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WM and sentence comprehension: Definition of post-interpretive processes: Controlled conscious processing of the propositional content of the sentence and using it to accomplish tasks, like reasoning, planning actions, storing information in long-term semantic memory, etc. E.g., Pick up four tomatoes, a pound of apricots, prune juice, shallots, six apples and a bag of carrots on the way home. The sentence above is easy to understand, but carrying out the request from
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This note was uploaded on 11/11/2011 for the course BIO 9.07 taught by Professor Ruthrosenholtz during the Spring '04 term at MIT.

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0927_ev_f - 9.591 24.945 Individual differences in sentence comprehension Working memory capacity and sentence comprehension Ted Gibson Ev

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