full_ps3_key - 9.09J/7.29J - Cellular Neurobiology, Spring...

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9.09J/7.29J - Cellular Neurobiology, Spring 2005 Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences Department of Biology Instructors: Professors William Quinn and Troy Littleton Problem Set #3 Answer Key 1. Define the relevance of the following terms to the course: Broca’s Aphasia: Lesions in the left posterior frontal lobe. Can understand speech but have a disruption in expressing spontaneous speech and writing. Spemann’s Organizer: Mesodermal region underneath dorsal ectoderm important in initial signaling for nervous system development. Eventually forms axial mesoderm and notocord. Ephrins: Short-range inhibitory cues for eph kinases. Used in many pathfinding situations, including post/ant retinotectal axonal pathfinding. Ventricular Zone: Progenitor cells live here that give rise to coritical neurons via cell migration. Lissencephaly: Brain diseases that result in developmental defects in cell migration during formation of the cerebral cortex. Many genes involved in cytoskeletal function, including Lis1 and Doublecortin, both involved in microtubule binding, can cause such defects. Rita Levi-Montalcini: Discovered neuronal cell death during nervous system development – lead to the neurotrophic hypothesis. Morphogen: Inductive signals that can direct distinct cell fates depending on concentration. Neural Crest Cells: Migratory cell population born near dorsal neural tube that migrate to the periphery, differentiating into PNS neurons, schwann cells, menalocytes, etc. Ocular Dominance Columns: Primary visual cortex columns with primarily monocular innervation, requires visual activity during the critical period to form. Neuroligin: A potential postsynaptic scaffolding protein that binds the presynaptic protein neurexin, and couples to other postsynaptic adapters such as PSD-95. Implicated in synapse formation in the CNS. 2. Answer the following multiple-choice questions. Circle all that apply (a, a and b, b and d, etc). 2-1. Cranial nerves involved in eye movement include: B and D (nerves 4 & 6) 2-2. The following are components of the basal ganglia: B and D
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2-3. The following are receptors for morphogen or axonal guidance cues: E,F Frizzled is a receptor for Wnt (a morphogen), and robo is a receptor for slit (an axon guidance cue). Smoothed is a component of the SHH signaling pathway, but not the actual receptor. 2-4. Floor plate cultures that have been heat inactivated would be expected to: C (Boiling inactivates netrin, therefore there is no attractive cue) 2-5. Monocular deprivation in young animals results in: A. MD produces cortical blindness (w/o affecting retinal function – answer B). The sharpening of columns occurs when NMDA is applied to the cortex, not during
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This note was uploaded on 11/11/2011 for the course BIO 9.07 taught by Professor Ruthrosenholtz during the Spring '04 term at MIT.

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full_ps3_key - 9.09J/7.29J - Cellular Neurobiology, Spring...

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