MIT9_14S09_prob18a

MIT9_14S09_prob18a - 9.14 Selected Qs based on lectures 1...

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9.14 Selected Qs based on lectures 1) How do we define and recognize specific cell groups in the CNS? (What are the types of methods called?) 2) How do we know about connections between cell groups, e.g., what methods are required? Give examples. 3) Three different basic types of multipurpose actions (movement patterns) by all vertebrates were described in class. Give one example of each, for any animal that you are familiar with. 4) Define the following terms: a. notochord b. primary sensory neuron c. secondary sensory neuron d. interneuron, e. motor neuron f. dermatome g. the sulcus limitans h. the basal plate i. the alar plate j. the ventral roots k. propriospinal axons 5) Amphioxus, the primitive protochordate, has visual inputs. These inputs enter what division of the CNS? In mammals is this the same or different? 6) Give an example of a sensory function that has led to great expansions of specific parts of the hindbrain in certain species of fish. Also, describe the function. 7) In comparisons of different species, the midbrain shows much quantitative variation. Select two species where it is different and describe the main differences. 8) In chordate evolution, what sensory input or inputs led to the early (perhaps the earliest) expansion of the endbrain? What was a major factor that led to a later expansion of the endbrain in chordates? (For the second question there is more than one possible answer.) 9) A great expansion of the neocortex in mammals was correlated with expansion of other brain structures as well. Name or describe two specific non-endbrain structures that showed such expansion in evolution. 10) Motor neurons that innervate striated muscles are located in the spinal cord and in which brain subdivisions?
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11) Contrast spinoreticular and spinothalamic tracts. 12) What is spinal shock? How is it an example of diaschisis? Explain the meaning of "corticospinal diaschisis." 13) What are two known mechanisms of recovery from deafferentation depression (diaschisis)?
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