General Psychology 2

General Psychology 2 - Samantha Hod General Psychology...

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Samantha Hod General Psychology Notes 2 Chapter Five: Classical conditioning: a procedure by which a previously neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response after it is paired with a stimulus that automatically elicits that response; the first type of learning to be systematically studied Ex. Pavlov-dogs salivate when heard bell b/c they related it with food Conditioned Emotional Responses and Little Albert Classical conditioning affects behavior through the conditioning of emotional responses Conditioned emotional response occurs when a formerly neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that evokes an emotional response Little Albert experiment (Watson/Rayner) Albert given different objects, played with them introduced loud noise every time he touched the rat, Albert scared of rat and eventually all the other objects Classical conditioning may be an explanation to phobias (ex. Needles) Conditioned Immune Responses Immune system: a system of cells throughout the body that fight disease -classical conditioning can affect the immune system Extinction Extinction: in classical conditioning, the process by which a conditioned response is weakened by presentation of the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus; in operant conditioning, the process by which the connection between an operant and a reinforcer or punishment is similarly broken Spontaneous recovery: the spontaneous reemergence of a response or an operant that has been extinguished Preparedness to Learn: An Evolutionary Perspective -influence on classical conditioning: organism’s readiness to learn certain associations -some responses can be conditioned much more readily to certain stimuli than to others (ex. Rats associating nausea with taste rather than light or sound) -prepared learning: responses to which an organism is predisposed because they were selected though natural selection ability to learn languages Responses -prepared: ex. Get sick from a specific food, associate getting sick with this food, avoid this specific food
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-counter-prepared: ex. Cat cannot be conditioned to respond to fearful stimulus through grooming -neutral responses unconditioned-food conditioned-bell Law of Predilection -Rescorla and Wagner -replaced law of contiguity -suggests that animals are not blindly making connections between any two stimuli but between stimuli that are likely to guide adaptive responses -presence of conditioned stimulus (stimulus that the organism has learned to associate with the unconditioned stimulus) predicts appearance of unconditioned stimulus (stimulus producing reflexive response without any prior learning) -animals learn about timing of stimuli (ex. Dogs knew how long after the bell was rung that they’d receive food) Operant Conditioning -Edward Thorndike -law of effect: law proposed by Thorndike which states that the tendency of an organism to produce a behavior depends on the effect the behavior has on the environment (behavior controlled by consequences)
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General Psychology 2 - Samantha Hod General Psychology...

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