Final Review - 1 Introversion and extraversion in Jung’s...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Introversion and extraversion in Jung’s theory and in his life He was secluded as a child because he didn’t think people would understand his theories or himself and was scared of the rejection Personality 1= extroversion o Attitude type characterized by concentration of interest on the external object o Someone that gets his psychic energy from being with others o When you put an extrovert by himself he will also lose his energy Personality 2 = introversion o Attitude type characterized by orientation in life through subjective psychic contents o When one gets his energy and is in his comfort zone from being alone o When you take an introvert to a big group of people; they act differently and lose this energy Self‐state dreams and their purpose or function They do not fill wish fulfillment at all In portrays the state of the self, generally in subjective experiences of fragmentations, dissolutions of self loss (moments of crisis) Heinz Kohut states these dreams are like ones that would occur under traumatic stress The images in the dreams are the same as the manifest content So what the person sees is actually telling us what is going on in their mind and that their psychic is trying to react to any kind of stress or change They don’t have to do with the unconscious They serve a need to render the nameless nameable to visually picture the terrifyingly intangible visible and material (forms images) to picture with definiteness the incomprehensible and infinite No distance between manifest and latent content. No disguise Jung’s dream of the two skulls Jung dreamt that he was in a house that seemed to be his house in the dream. But he noticed that he didn’t know what the downstairs of his house looked like so he went to the first floor which seemed to be much older than the rest of the house. Then he found this stairwell which he took to yet another floor downstairs and he found another room. And he lifted a stone slab from the wall (by the way he thought the slabs looked like from roman times) when he lifted the slab he found another stair well and took it downstairs and that led him to a cave and in the dust on the floor he found two human skulls. He tried to get Freud off his back by saying that the two skulls he saw reminded him of his wife and sister in law rather than Freud think it was Jung’s wish to actually 2 have Freud die. Jung said it was a dream all about his life because he grew in an old house. Jung thought the different floors referred to different levels of consciousness. And the last floor was the primitive unconscious we all have and so this dream led him to think about the collective unconscious. Jung’s dream was not an intimation from a wise unconscious of the hitherto undiscovered existence of a ‘collective unconscious’. It was simply a metaphorical representation of the question which Jung was introspectively exploring when awake, namely the relationship between personal psychology and history. Jung’s idiosyncratic interpretation of the dream arises because he hasn’t realized that the dream is a metaphorical representation of their relationship between two variables: history and psychology. By focusing on only one variable, namely the psyche, Jung almost inevitably concluded that the other variable (history) was the answer. In his own words, “my dream was giving me an answer”, by showing him the many levels of historical consciousness (i.e. the collective unconscious) still operating beneath the individuals personal consciousness. Buried duality on Freud’s death wish Personal unconscious and collective unconscious (Jung) the personal unconscious o superficial and everyone just makes up their own, we can control what we have in our personal unconscious the collective unconscious o deeper and contains things that are beyond the persons control like experience, religion, myths o of these archetypes that we do not know about but they exist and we see them in our dreams and we read about them in myths o this is the source of energy that has no boundaries, a storehouse of inherited impersonal memories forged by the collective experiences of humankind throughout all time The archetypes of the collective unconscious: anima, animus, the Self archetypes are not in our conscious mind, but manifest themselves in our dreams and mystical experiences you find them in myths and stories essential thing is to differentiate oneself from unconscious contents by personifying them at the same time, to bring them into relationship with consciousness Anima 3 o The archetypal female image corresponding to a man’s unconscious feminity Animus o Archetypal image corresponding to a women’s unconscious masculinity *these two are the true self and it is how we communicate with the unconscious. This is our inner attitude and soul. In men it is represented as feminine thought and in females it is represented as male thought. Jung said it starts with infancy when infants begin to project onto the mother. This consists of principles that we live by. There is no mask here, it is what it is. The Self o To Jung this was the spirit that connects him with the universe o It unifies the consciousness with the unconsciousness, everything is brought together as one o It is the center of the whole personality..people like Buddha represent the self in stories because he reached nirvana and so on. o The self realized people is actually less selfish o Goal of psychic development, wholeness of personality, center, exponent of all paths, path to center, to individuation Jung’s idea of individuation and wholeness, and the relation of this idea to his early experience of splitting into No. 1 and No. 2 personalities Jung’s childhood and identity issues, including early separation from his mother Individuation = the establishment of a sense of cohesive, bounded selfhood differentiated from omnipotent figures of the unconscious Most important task of personality development/therapy o No. 1 was the regular school boy who went to school and obeyed his parents o No. 2 was an old wise man that was really connected with God When Jung was young his mother became depressed and he was separated from her for a long time and he had been closer to her than his father And his mom he saw her as really religious so No. 2 connected them since No.2 was also religious Jung’s first dream of the “man‐eater” At 3 years old this is the first dream he can remember He say this big thing that was like 15 feet high and really thick and it was all made of skin and naked flesh and had a rounded head on the top with no fair and no hair On the top of the head there was a single eye. It would reappear anytime someone would talk about Jesus in an empathetic way. 4 So he thought of this scary monster as the counterpart of Jesus so he never grew to admire or love Jesus. He thought this man‐eater was a Phallus, but since he had never seen this at the age of 3, it must have been part of his collective unconscious Lord Jesus never became real or acceptable or lovable because he would think of the underground counterpart He had a secret mistrust Jung’s view of Freud and the whole rupture between Freud and Jung Jung had long admired Freud but was never entirely sold on Freud’s throaty To Freud, the unconscious contains no commonly held or universal archetypes such as understood by Jung Jung said that yes there is something like Freud’s “personal” unconscious but this merely rests or floats upon an infinite collective unconscious which does not at all derive from the personal unconscious Instead it comes to the individual as a part of something universal in nature Its “contents and modes of behavior´” says Jung, are essentially “the same everywhere and in all individuals” This is not to say that it expresses itself the same in all individuals only that the archetypal patterns are universally present Jung’s thoughts on life after death and Jung’s approach to psychotherapy Life after death o Jung recalled the meditating Hindu from his near‐death experience and read it as a parable of the archetypal Higher Self, the God‐image within Approach to psychotherapy o Reconnect the individual to his or her own core being and thereby be able to live consciously their unique life path or individuation journey Reich’s childhood tragedy: the terrible circumstances of his mother’s suicide Father was a brutal authoritarian man but very in love with his wife and was jealous of other men’s interest in her Mother was attractive and affectionate person who remained subdued by her dominant husband Reich competed with his brother for her exclusive love Mother often protected him as young child from the father’s beatings Father mistreated Mother and called her hideous names until she was left to cry in a corner and whole body bore marks of his rage 5 Mother had affair with kid’s tutor Mixed feelings of moral outrage, abandonment, sexual excitement and sympathy from the father came Mother poisoned herself on 2 occasions died on second Impact of Reich’s mother’s suicide on his thinking Overwhelmed him less with grief than with fascination of a new situation Felt a certain pride to be called an orphan – did not feel grief Reich blamed himself for his mother’s ultimate death Since then he vilified his father and idealized his mother. His childhood shaped his thinking; repression of sexuality viewed as vicious and deadly force in human affairs. He idealized his mother and sexual freedom, but contradicted himself under times of stress when he accused his wife of infidelity. Sexuality became one of the prominent themes in his theories. He held the belief sexual freedom leads to a better society and repression of sexuality causes bodily illness. Reich’s psychological deterioration The disastrous relationship with Freud played a huge part this process Reich idolized Freud and had unlimited devotion to psychoanalysis The major factor in contributing to his break with Freud was his interests in politics and the reform of society His theories went from radical to ridiculous as he began generalizing his theories for the entire human population of the world Freud’s refusal to take Reich for analysis was part of it It was an intolerable rejection for Reich not to be taken for personal analysis He was an avid supporter of communism – something which did not sit well with Freud Reich felt he wasn’t being appreciated or his ideas weren’t taken seriously enough Rank’s idea of the trauma of birth and his idea of the creative artist Trauma Birth o Extended Freud’s ideas to mother‐child relationships o He viewed the child’s separation from the other at birth and weaning as the basis of every anxiety or fear, and every pleasure has as its final aim the reestablishment of the primal pleasure of the intrauterine state o We are constantly replaying the trauma wer experience at birth – like the anxiety and fear 6 o Trauma of birth is separation anxiety, it’s a biological symbol for psychological process of self‐differentiation and self‐articulation Creative Artist o Rank believed that the artist and the neurotic were both driven by narcissistic conflicts o The artist can channel his conflicts and therefore satisfy his needs, but the narcissist can’t o He tries to satisfy his narcissistic needs through art and creativity o The artistic person is capable of channeling narcissistic conflicts adaptively and partially satisfying his narcissistic needs through creative production o Rank always identified himself with the artist type. Artists are forever struggling to separate and liberate themselves from the prevailing ideology. o The narcissist remains forever absorbed because he can’t channel his conflicts. Rank’s knowledge of both artist and neurosis depended primarily on his own make up o The artist depends on his love objects to satisfy his craving for a muse, the muse functions as a mirroring, echoing, approving, and narcissistically sustaining presence Rank’s childhood background and different ways of trying to establish his own selfhood Freud’s closest disciple and colleague Freud advised him not to go to medical school but to complete his academic education he obliged Ph. D at 28 from University of Vienna He suffered from depression and mood swings and a lot of his issues were due to his alcoholic father who made him feel helpless He had inevitable narcissistic injuries and frustration of middle age. He had joint rheumatism, didn’t have an education or friends, no on looked over him he was lonely and had no support He developed an acute and preoccupying terror of death He admired his brother, but his brother ignored him and his mother ignored his emotional needs Being ignored caused him to bottle things up which caused him to become narcissistic. There were some manifestations of narcissistic disturbance in Rank’s personality. He had profound disturbances in feeling of self‐continuity and personal identity He tried to establish his own self hood by first idealizing his mother, then he looked to idealize men outside of the family but get sexually seduced at age 7, gave up looking, then found Freud 7 Disturbance in self‐esteem regulation and extreme mood swings may have covered a dangerous fragility in his sense of self Disruption in his idealizations affected his concept of selfhood until he met Freud. What happened between Rank and Freud? Rank severed his ties from the Freudian inner circle after his theory of the birth trauma Because this theory contradicted Freud by the lack of emphasis on the libido and sex drive Freud linked everything beck to the sexual drive and misunderstood Rank’s theory It didn’t talk about sex and the libido as a drive It talked about the drive to the intrauterine state instead of the sexual drive Kohut’s theories of the grandiose self and the idealized parent imago, as applied to Rank He rejected Rank’s emphasis on the mother (psychoanalysis then was father‐centered) and the Oedipus complex He put down Rank’s interest in brief therapy as a sign of corruption Kohut argued that the child attempts to replace the lost state of primary narcissistic perfection along 2 pathways By establishing a grandiose and exhibitionistic image of the self and by giving over previous perfection to an admired omnipotent self; the idealized parent imago o The idealized parent imago – an admired, omnipotent (transitional) self‐object that you give over the previous perfection to o Grandiose self – a grandiose and exhibitionistic image of the self Traumatic disappointment by idealized parents impels child to recoil into fantasy images of grandiose self The concepts of orgone energy, character armor, packet‐amoeboid bions, T‐bacilli, fascist political systems (Reich) A way to reconcile with his perfected image of his own self. He believed that the sexual life energy, which he had previously thought, existed only in living organisms, was actually an omnipotent orgone energy enveloping the earth o ORGONE ENERGY = universal life energy that supported life Radiations that are present everywhere and thought the radiation cured cancer o CHARACTER ARMOR = ego defense, protects the ego A stratified set of defenses to protect the ego against internal and external dangers 8 It is acquired from childhood experiences and manifests itself in the whole body Psychoanalysts have to break though o PACKET‐AMOEBOID = formed after disintegration of healthy tissue, basically used to destroy cancer cells Symbol for life and free sexuality o T‐BACILLI = anti‐life, anti sexual forces Were the ones to attack the healthy cells but were inhibited by the Packet‐amoeboid bions Basically protected the healthy cells from the t‐bacilli o FASCIST POLITICAL SYSTEMS = primary way family preps child for life in the system is by imposing a severe moral inhibition on the natural expression of sexuality Make the child afraid, shy, fearful of authority, obedient, and docile Reich believed that fascist political government are responsible for all the sexual suppression in society Way for fascist systems to control the people He believed that because people do not allow the free expression of sexuality this allows them to be subject to the wishes of a fascist society The dynamic unconscious, the prereflective unconscious, the unvalidated unconscious Unconscious organizing principles the organizing principles that unconsciously shape and thematize a person’s experiences o They are the life themes in our dreams Prereflective unconscious shaping of experiences by psychological structures (organizing principles meanings, schemas, thematic patterns) that operate outside conscious awareness Dynamic unconscious consciousness isn’t permitted to assume because of their association with emotional conflict and subjective danger o Experiences that we denied articulation because they were perceived to threaten needed ties Unvalidated Unconscious refers to childhood experiences that could not be consciously articulated because they never evoked sufficient validating responses from caregivers o Ex – when someone is not rewarded for an action they never do it on purpose again 9 The personal‐subjective origins of intersubjectivity theory (last section of chapter 6 of Faces in a Cloud) There are 3 interrelated principles in the quest for subjective origins of our thinking: o Human experience is always embedded in an irreducible engagement with others o The essential inseparability of the psychological investigator from the worlds of experience he investigates (how a psychological theorist influences his understanding of other persons’ experiences ) o Every person reality is subjectively and historically shaped and that therefore no one’s personal reality is inherently more true or valid than another Dasein, being‐in‐the‐world, being‐with, being‐toward‐death, historicity, falling, thrownness, Dasein as "thrown projection," Heideggar though that “in the world” human being is saturated with the world in which it dwells, just as the inhabited world is drenched in human meanings/purposes Dasien is a being‐in‐the‐world o An unbroken unity undercutting the traditional division between subject and object, mind and external reality, inner and outer belonging to western civilization o The world is part of dasien in dissociable – there is no isolated “I” or worldless subject that floats somewhere, only then to find a world o Dasien – you and I – are always already part of the world, It’s a built in feature of being a part of the world (not a matter of one thing spatially inside another) Dasien is a being‐with o Not an existing alongside in space – an irreducible relationality it relates to other Dasiens o Dasien ceasing to be a being‐with would cease to be a Dasien o It’s not possible to not relate to others o If a Dasein doesn’t relate to another dasien it isn’t Dasien o Dasein is irreducibly related, always taking up attitudes toward others Dasein is a being toward death o We are aware of own mortality o We are the only ones in the universe who know this o We see we will die. EX. George’s uncle who denied it “stepping up” Historicity o We exist as past, and take up an attitude because of that past and we exist toward the future because of the vision we have toward it 10 o We orient toward it o We interpret and reinterpret our own past (and future) o One cannot historize – even the denial of history is a historizing act Falling o Falling in love with what we are expected to be o Inauthenticity and identification with “the they” o The average man Throwness Dasein as “thrown projection” o Dasein is “thrown projection” o (Geworfener Entwarf) – we project meaning upon the situations into which we are thrown o We always find ourselves in situations not of our own making EX. 1.being a male or female 2.the language we speak 3.the country we live in (We can’t undo it) Heidegger's Nazi involvement He became part of the Nazi as the rector of Freiberg, he then started to realize how horrible the Nazis were and he resigned from his position and became a teacher He then had to go through a denazification hearing and he denied any wrong doing He was not allowed to teach anymore since they didn’t want him giving students and bad ideas And so this finally led him to go crazy and go to an asylum Hannah Arendt as Heidegger's muse and the 'love of his life' He meets Hanna (18 yrs old student of his) before joining the Nazi’s. He had an affair with her He found her the only person who truly understood his thinking. She was the love of his life Their affair tortured her She gave him a diary with all her depressed feelings and he denied it because he needed to see her as perfect and idolize her She pulls away After he lost her he has a breakdown which is why he became involved with the Nazis. Hannah was actually Jewish 11 Heidegger's personal search for a sense of his own Being Hannah was his muse for writing Being and Time but she then left him He began to feel nothingness He needed to find something so he developed a growing enthusiasm and fascination with the Nazi Party and joined it o Here he conformed but later resigns when he realizes what the Nazis were o He then goes to teach and gets stripped of that as well when they find out he was a Nazi Ontology – the study of being, what is being Dilthey's distinction between the human sciences and the natural sciences Natural Science goal is explanation (causality, experimentation and objectivity) o They study physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy, etc Human Sciences goal is understanding (subjectivity, meaning, and interpretation Psychology as a human science that focuses on experience and meaning Its goal in understanding It has 3 features o Imperial domain (what it studies) is human subjectivity (experiences) and human action What people do how they live? Etc NOT BEHAVIOR o Most central method of observation is empathy (one person knows the experiences of another) and self reflection (we delve into ourselves) This is how we gather information o It is recursive (it studies itself) Psychology falls into its own imperial domain (subjective experience and action) Human science understanding as the "rediscovery of the I in the Thou” All understanding in the human sciences is a “rediscovery of the I in the Thou” o Therefore these sciences are inherently subjective The act of “relieving, to escape a purer projection, must be accompanied by the critique of historical reason” Reflection on our own historical situations that color our judgments Closing the gap between observer and observed (read yourself in) 12 What about own personal/historical subjectivity and relativity? We may imagine putting ourselves into their lives, but not actually achieve that at all o Need to know everything you possibly can about that person in their time o Need to know ourselves – our own present situation color our thinking We put ourselves in, discover the other by identifying ourselves with him/her These sciences are subjective “The 'haunting paradoxes' of Freud's lifework (his missing the meaning of the Irma dream, his exempting himself from having to be analyzed, his withdrawal of the seduction theory) 1st great paradox – Irma’s wish fulfillment Theory o In the dream that taught Freud the great secret of all dreams, he missed the secret of the dream o After this Freud cut Fliess off completely , he never spoke to him or of him again o The special experience of having one’s idealized picture of someone shattered o The satisfaction of a desire, need, or impulse through a dream, fantasy, or other exercise of the imagination nd 2 great paradox – Freud’s refusal to undergo analysis o Freud would never submit to being analyzed himself o His idea was that he was exempt o Freud and Jung came to the idea that every psychoanalyst must go through psychoanalysis themselves o Mutual dream analysis with Jung during 1910 trip to Clark University o “I will not compromise my authority” rd 3 great paradox – retraction of seduction theory o The rescinding of the seduction theory of hysteria o 1898 – “The Actiology of Hysteria” Hysteria – presence of physical symptoms stemming from psychological causes What makes a person hysterical is caused by trauma, which produced overwhelming emotion which is repressed out of consciousness o The fact that something has happened and is pressed out of consciousness does not mean it is gone, it is still in existence in an unconscious region of the brain o Early sexual experiences are the kind of trauma that are most expressive of hysteria – calls it seduction rather than sexual abuse o Something brings out the memory of the trauma and it is again shut out and repressed but a symptom is generated o It is primarily (not exclusively) fiction, fantasy expression of “infantile sexuality” o He is indicting his own father in this monstrous abuse of children 13 2 of his sisters were hysterics and thus he believed they were introduced to sexuality early on 2‐3 weeks later he took it all back o He claimed that he had evidence that all of these “memories” were fantasies made up in early childhood o 1899 – retracts this hypothesis; early memories are fictitious The patient who dreamed of the execution of an infant girl It was a picture of perfect vulnerability A 32 year old single female high up in a healthcare organization o She was very successful but had an issue o She had anxiety attacks where she was transported into a very young girl – defenseless in a world of grownups o A victim of parentification (double check on this) The patient who dreamed of the tooth extraction Sitting in dental chair, menacing dentist and assistant come to tear her tooth out She runs as if for her life, and escapes [Even though dreams of teeth extraction are common, there is no fixed meaning] She had had an abortion, and the dreams all symbolize this in some way The patient who dreamed of the funeral and the dancing boyfriend with a tree growing from his back This is a dream of a 45 yr old woman She’s in a crowd filled street watching a funeral procession drawn by a horse. The crowd is solemn. The dead is Mr. X His brother follows the coffin, dancing and spinning, with an enormous Yucca tree, flowering and beautiful, sprouting from his back We learn that this woman is married to a terrible alcoholic, who has destroyed their lives and roved this woman of any life, including children Mr. X’s brother is her first lover from when she was a teen They loved each other but her family prevented this relationship from continuing because of religious differences The dream symbolizes the fertility of this lost lover, who might have been the father of her children Fertility is represented by the flower and the tree Brill saw this a phallic symbol 14 The dreamwork and its various "mechanisms" (condensation, displacement, reversal, representation by the opposite, plastic word imagery) CONDENSATION o Multiple elements in latent content “condense” into single elements in manifest content o So..a dream is a set of images that mean multiple things DISPLACEMENT o Shifting the affect toward or about someone or something else REVERSAL o Where the relationship between 1 person in themanifest, another is reversed in the latent content EX. Dreams of sexual desire, or murder (you desire him but you dream he desires you) REPRESENTATION OF THE OPPOSITE o A feeling in the latent content is represented in the precise opposite of the manifest EX. Love is hate, weakness is strength PLASTIC WORLD IMAGERY o Translating verbal metaphor into visual pictures o Dear to deer The wish fulfillment theory The satisfaction of a desire, need, or impulse through a dream, fantasy, or other exercise of the imagination All dreams attempt to fulfill a wish Why the existence of anxiety dreams (nightmares) and punishment dreams do not contradict the idea that dreams fulfill wishes He said that those anxious exam dreams you have that you’re not going to pass a test only happen to people who’ve managed to past exams in the past, not people who flunked He said those anxiety dreams about failing happen with tasks you’ve had success with before All dreams attempt to fulfill a wish but are stopped by failure of dreamwork to transform traumatic event into wish fulfillment Punishment dreams are still wish fulfillments, those of the critical, censoring, and punishing agency of the mind 15 The purpose or function of dreams according to Freud To preserve sleep when a stimulus threatens to wake us up There are 3 stimuli: o External – such as an alarm clock o Somatic – comes from inside you (need to go to the bathroom o Psychic – all the persons thoughts and feelings The subjective world The 'three master of the ego' in Freud's book The external world The superego The id o The ego is driven by the id, confined by the superego, repulsed by reality (external world) The theoretical model of the mind divided into ego, id, and superego Id unconscious and is the primal part of the personality that operates on the pleasure principle Superego the conscience, like authority figures who tell us what behavior is acceptable and not acceptable Ego mediates between the two and operates on the reality principle "Symbols" in dreams The ongoing subjective life The experience of the dreamer Associations stand as symbols, disguised latent content in dreams Self‐state dreams Dreams that picture the felt state of the self, appearing most often in experiences of fragmentation or dissolution o These dreams do not fulfill a wish, and are not censored or disguised – they seem to serve to the frightening and confusing, physically tangible and difficult If you ask a person to associate with self state dreams, they can’t come up with anything They depict/crystallize what a person’s experience is with themselves o The need is to picture something horribly incomprehensible 16 The relation between the dreamwork and interpretation (interpretation reverses the dreamwork) Interpretation o Manifest latent Dreamwork o Latent manifest The censorship in dreams Special critical and prohibiting agency called the super ego is responsible for this The dreamwork highlights the highly indirect, often metaphorically only seemingly nonsensical nature of the manifest content of dreams When we interpret dreams, we make sense of what the dreamwork was trying to conceal Freud and his reaction to his muse Wilhelm Fliess Freud was incredibly close to and dependant on Fliess as a muse for his creation Intense and passionate relationship between the two, reciprocal faith in each other Fliess attended some of Freud’s lectures and then became close friends with him Fliess became an important part of psychoanalysis They were friends until Fliess accused Fred of trying to give away one of his theories to someone that was trying to plagerize him Day’s residues in dreams Every dream has something from the day before in it Manifest content of a dream This is what actually comes out in your dream and things you see and hear Latent dream thoughts underlying a dream These are the thoughts and meaning behind the manifest content, this is what that manifest stuff really means Dream narrative Unconscious portions of the ego and superego 17 Ego o (mostly conscious) deals with external reality Superego o (partly conscious) is the conscience or moral judge 2 parts Conscious ideal ego part that one tries to adapt one’s life is formed primarily through parental imitation, but can also borrow from others throughout adolescence Unconscious prohibitory ego – tries to prevent direct expression of id impulses Formed extremely early in life from parent’s principles, rules and ideals Ego‐ideal An image of the perfect self towards which the ego should aspire Closely bound up with our super‐ego Also tied up with childhood narcissism (the belief in one’s own perfection), which in adulthood can take as its substitute the perfection of the ego‐ideal Free association A tool to get to the latent These get associated to dream images and they give clues to the latent content Relation of the id to the idea of time There is nothing corresponding to the idea of time, no recognition of the passage of time No alteration of mental processes by the passage of time The Pleasure Principle That continuously drives one to seek pleasure and to avoid pain; its counterpart is the reality principle, which defers gratification when necessary An individual’s id follows the pleasure principle and rules early life, but, as one matures, one learns the need to endure pain and defer gratification, because of the exigencies and obstacles of reality In Freud’s words, “an ego thus educated has become reasonable; it no longer lets itself be governed by the pleasure principle, but obeys the reality principle, which also at 18 bottom seeks to obtain pleasure, but pleasure which is assured through taking account of reality, even though it is pleasure postponed and diminished” Telepathy or thought transference in dreams Telepathy o Having a dream about something this is happening to a person close to you; no evidence this actually occurs o Ex. Of man who dreams of 2nd wife giving birth to twins when his daughter actually gives birth to twins that some night o Possible interpretation is that the man wished to replace wife’s personality with his daughters Thought transference o One person’s thoughts can be transferred to another person without verbal communications o Ex. Childless woman visiting her fortune teller who was wrong about her but right about her mother “2 kids by age 32” o Ex. Mother talking to analyst about a gold coin from her childhood and when she got home her child presented her with a gold coin o Ex. Fortune teller telling a man that his brother‐in‐law would be dying from cray‐ fish poisoning when this even actually almost occurred 1 yr before 'Criteria of coherence' (logical consistency, comprehensiveness, aesthetic beauty, etc.) in deciding whether a given interpretation is to be seen as true LOGICAL CONSISTENCY o It should make sense COMPREHENSIVENESS o Should link meaningfully all the details of the dream CONSISTENCY WITH THE KNOWN o The basis of knowledge that was built up with the analyst it needs to fit what you already know about them o Need to be careful of someone working on a false self basis (when you behave as others expect you to) BEAUTY IN MAKING THE DREAM TRANSPARENT o You can see into the persons own window, into their world as they see it o To George, there is a beauty to that understanding DREAMER’S REACTION o How do they react to the interpretation 19 o Should be consistent o A connection o A reaction with passionate intensity Dr. E.'s ideas on the primary reason for suicide The essence of human nature The role of philosophy in psychotherapy with emphasis on metaphysics, ethics, epistemology, and aesthetics ...
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