508lecture2

508lecture2 - Lecture #2 Lecture 2 2/6/04 Notes: DS viewer...

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2/6/04 Notes: DS viewer Pro is PC only. This is the program that will be used in Techniques and Discussion, but Swiss PDB viewer and Rasmol are both available free online, and work on both PC and Mac. Also, remember that you are expected to know all the amino acids, their one letter codes and their structures for this course. This is some of the basic vocabulary of biochemistry, so memorize them! Review from previous lecture: Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes 1. Size 1 to 2 microns 10 to 100 microns (important when thinking about metabolism) 2. Compartmentalization no discrete organelles organelles with membranes 3. Cytoskeleton recently discovered in very important for bacteria cell shape, organelle movement 4) DNA E.coli -circular DNA histone/DNAcomplexes (remember different structures when thinking about replication and repair mechanisms) 5) Larger surface to volume ratio for bacteria- important in nutrient fluxes such as diffusion of oxygen and other molecules. In eucaryotes the surface to volume ratio is much smaller and therefore some some molecules require carriers, myoglobin for example delivers oxygen? Similarities in cellular MACHINERY in prokaryotes and eukaryotes allow us to apply what we learn from the simpler prokaryotic system to the more complex eukaryotic systems. Fatty acid synthases (FAS), the ribosomes, the machines that fold proteins and the machines that degradation proteins are all conserved. Proteins related to redox active metal homeostasis (copper and iron) and oxidative stress are also conserved. CELL INTERIOR When you break open cells, the solution appears viscous, and sometimes “snotty” The interior of cells is very CROWDED! In bacteria, the concentration of macromolecules is estimated to be 340 mg/mL ! The crowded interior of cells has thermodynamic and kinetic consequences for how things work inside the cell. Lecture #2
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508lecture2 - Lecture #2 Lecture 2 2/6/04 Notes: DS viewer...

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