Chapter 4 Notes - Chapter4:Consciousness...

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Chapter 4: Consciousness Sleeping and Dreaming o Stages of Sleep Sleep researchers study the brain’s electrical activity during sleep by  taping tiny discs to a person’s scalp and connecting them to an  EEG   The recordings, called  brain waves , vary in height (amplitude) and speed  (frequency) as behavior or mental processes change Awake, alert person  irregular, small, closely spaced= high  frequency, low amplitude Relaxed person  rhythmic brain waves occurring at lower speeds Non-REM Sleep Four stages o Characterized by slow brain waves and high amplitude o Deepest stages (3 and 4) are known as wave sleep Stage 4: difficult to be awakened  deepest sleep NREM (non-REM) sleep -sleep stages 1-4; they are accompanied  by gradually slower and deeper breathing ; a calm regular  heartbeat; reduced blood pressure; and slower brain waves (Stage 3  and 4 are called slow-wave sleep) REM Sleep After 30-45 minutes of stage 4, you go back to stage 2 REM sleep -the stage of sleep during which muscle tone decreases  dramatically but the EEG resembles that of someone who is awake Also called paradoxical sleep A Night’s Sleep Most people pass through the cycle of sleep stages four to six times  each night Each cycle lasts about 90 minutes Early in the night, most time is spent in NREM sleep, with only a  few minutes of REM sleep   Figure 4.4 on pg. 146 Sleep patterns change with age o Average 70-year old sleeps only about 6 hours o Average infant sleeps about 16 hours o REM sleep accounts for half  of total sleep for infants but  only 25% for young adults o Sleep Disorders Insomnia -sleep disorder in which a person has trouble falling or staying  asleep
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Persists for longer than one month Associated with mental distress, impairment of functioning, and  reduction of one’s sense of well-being Especially associated with anxiety and depression Can be relieved with sleeping pills, but learning-based treatments  are more helpful Narcolepsy
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