Book Notes 3

Book Notes 3 - Exam 3 Book Notes Chapter 6- Development of...

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Exam 3 Book Notes Chapter 6- Development of Language and Symbol Use: pgs. 216-219 Symbols - systems for representing our thoughts, feelings, and knowledge and for communicating them to other people Language Development o Using language involves Language Comprehension - understanding what others say (or sign or write) Language Production - speaking (or writing or signing) to others o Language comprehension precedes language production children understand words and other linguistic structures before they can use them themselves o The Components of Language Generativity - refers to the idea that through the use of the finite set of words in our vocabulary, we can put together an infinite number of sentences and express and infinite number of ideas Phonological Development - the acquisition of knowledge about the sound system of a language The 1 st step in children’s language learning Phonemes - the elementary units of meaningful sound used to produce languages Semantic Development - the learning of the system for expressing meaning in a language, including word learning The 2 nd component in language acquisition Morphemes - the smallest unit of meaning in a language, composed of one or more phonemes Syntactic Development - the learning of the syntax of a language The 3 rd component of language acquisition Syntax - rules in a language that specify how words from different categories (nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc.) can be combined Pragmatic Development - the acquisition of knowledge about how language is used Knowledge of the cultural rules for using language Metalinguistic Knowledge - an understanding of the properties and function of language—that is, an understanding of language as language An adult who hears someone speaking an unfamiliar language already knows what language is knows that the sounds the person is uttering constitute words, knows that words are combined to form sentences, knows that only certain combinations are acceptable, and so on The same factors are involved in sign language Speech Perception: pgs. 226-241 The first step in language learning is the perception of speech
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Prosody - the characteristic rhythm, tempo, cadence, melody, intonational patterns, and so forth with which a language is spoken o Reason why languages sound so different from one another Also involves speech sounds that make a difference in a given language Categorical Perception of Speech Sounds o Categorical Perception - the perception of speech sounds as belonging to discrete categories o Research testing an infant’s ability to tell the difference between the sounds /b/ and /p/ o Voice Onset Time (VOT) - the length of time between when air passes through the lips and when the vocal cords start vibrating Young babies make the same kind of sharp distinctions between speech sounds o The research reveals an ability that is both innate (present at birth) and independent of experience because infantscan discriminate between speech
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Book Notes 3 - Exam 3 Book Notes Chapter 6- Development of...

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