Study Guide Exam 2

Study Guide Exam 2 - Study Guide (First Half of Questions)...

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Study Guide (First Half of Questions) 1. Key Experiments a. a.i. Believed that forgetting might be caused simply by decay a.ii. Method a.ii.1. 3-letter trigram (HGE) was shown followed by 3-digit number (576) a.ii.2. People told to focus on the letters then count backwards by 3’s from number they were given a.ii.3. Counting done aloud with rhythm of metronome clicking 2x/sec a.ii.4. At the end, people were asked to say 3-letter item b. Brooks (1978)-dual-task: phonological loop vs. visual-spatial sketchpad b.i. Types of information and types of tasks can change your working memory b.ii. Primary task: mentally representing something visually in the mind b.iii. Secondary task b.iv. Central executive b.iv.1. Slave systems- attached to the central executive b.iv.1.a. Phonological loop b.iv.1.b. Visio-spatial loop b.iv.1.c. Episodic buffer b.iv.1.d. When you tax one of the slave systems, it will take resources from the central executive b.v. Results: when the secondary task was verbal, the accuracy of the primary task was about 100%. When it was visual, the accuracy of the primary task was less than 50%--> it was drawing resources from the visuo-spatial sketch pads c. c.i. Believed there was only 1 memory system c.i.1. The depth in which you process information determines how long you can keep information c.i.2. One system, but different depths c.i.3. Items receiving only incidental attention are processed at a shallow level c.i.4. Other items are subjected to more intentional deeper processing c.ii. Method c.ii.1. 2 types of rehearsal c.ii.1.a. Type 1: maintenance rehearsal stays active in short-term memory and not processed deeply c.ii.1.b. Type 2: elaborative rehearsal processed more deeply and better recalled c.iii. Results: things that required deeper processing were better recalled d. Conrad (1964) d.i. Free recall d.ii. Method
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d.ii.1. Give a list of letters and recall them in any order d.ii.2. Looked at types of letters e. Wickens (1972) e.i. See letter p f. f.i. Mental rotation f.ii. People were shown drawings of pairs of 3-D objects and they had to judge whether they were the same shape f.iii. Critical factor: the degree to which the second drawing was rotated from the original drawing f.iv. Result: people took longer to make their judgments as the angular rotation increased g. Baddeley (1986) g.i. Memory working model g.ii. Central executive g.ii.1. Slave systems- attached to the central executive g.ii.1.a. Phonological loop g.ii.1.b. Visio-spatial loop g.ii.1.c. Episodic buffer g.iii. When you tax one of the slave systems, it will take resources from the central executive h. h.i. Believed that type 1 shouldn’t improve recall no matter how long it is done h.ii. Method h.ii.1. People had to recall the last f-word they saw when the words stops flashing on the screen h.ii.2. How do differences in time spent holding onto words
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Study Guide Exam 2 - Study Guide (First Half of Questions)...

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